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Population Geography I The Where and Why of Population Density Distribution Demographics (Characteristics) Dynamics.

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Presentation on theme: "Population Geography I The Where and Why of Population Density Distribution Demographics (Characteristics) Dynamics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Population Geography I The Where and Why of Population Density Distribution Demographics (Characteristics) Dynamics

2 Cultural Hearths of Civilization

3 5000 BC

4 Year 1

5 1500

6 1900


8 World Population

9 World Population Cartogram

10 Population by continents

11 Density of World Population



14 Blackout of 2003

15 Select Population Densities (people/mi 2 ) Lower 48 states 94.7 NJ 1134 Lincoln Co., NV 0.4 Manhattan 66,834 Wisconsin 98.8 Eau Claire Co. 146 Florence Co. 10.4 Milwaukee Co. 3885

16 Population Densities (people/mi 2 ) Canada 8 Russia 22 United States 80 Holland 1002 Bangladesh 2261 Egypt 173 people/mi 2 3% of area inhabited Nile River 6000 people/mi 2

17 High density in Bangladesh

18 Distribution: Why do we live where we live?

19 Population Distribution in North America

20 Trans-Siberian railroads in eastern Russia Omsk

21 Demography: Population characteristics Ascribed characteristics Achieved characteristics

22 Characteristics Ascribed –Gender –Race –Age Achieved –Education –Income –Occupation –Employment –Etc.

23 Census: Count of population and its characteristics

24 Dynamics Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) Births - Deaths = RNI

25 National population Births - Deaths + Immigration (in) -Emigration (out) = Population growth

26 Population increase and decrease

27 World Birth Rate (births per 1,000 population)

28 Doubling Time Number of years it will take for population to double, at current rate United States: 117 years Nicaragua: 21 years

29 World Death Rate (deaths per 1,000 population)

30 Epidemics (AIDS)

31 Infant mortality rate (deaths of infants <1 year old) Lack of maternal health care or child nutrition

32 Philadelphia Infant Mortality Red area high than at least 28 “Third World” countries, including: Jamaica Cuba Costa Rica Malaysia Panama Sri Lanka South Korea Taiwan Uruguay Argentina Chile

33 Life Expectancy at Birth


35 Dependents are under 15 & over 65 How many are supported by 15-65 group Problems? Dependency Ratio

36 Low birth and death rates in Core Low population growth (except immigration) Steadily older population “Graying of the Core”

37 Comparison of U.S. eras

38 Baby Bust (1965-1980) Baby Boom (1946-1964)

39 Baby Boom impacts yet to come Strain on Social Security Growing health care costs Challenge to youth identity (Gen. X)

40 Population Pyramid tracks age-sex groups (cohorts)

41 U.S. (slow growth)

42 Tanzania, Africa (rapid growth)

43 Denmark (zero growth)

44 Germany (effect of wars)

45 Japan (effect of war)

46 China (One-child policy)

47 Canada, 1971-2006

48 Russia, 1990-2006

49 Arabian Peninsula, 1980s Labor sending : Labor receiving

50 Sun City (Arizona) retirement community

51 Eau Claire County 5.7%6.3%

52 Grafton Co., N.H. (1970) Two years before Dartmouth went co-ed


54 Different neighborhoods of Tucson

55 Demographic Transition Move from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates Took centuries of development for Core to make transition More difficult for Periphery to make transition without its own capital, skills, education

56 Demographic Transition

57 Stages of Demographic Transition 1. Pre-Industrial Equilibrium (high birth/death rates) 2. Early Industrialization (better sanitation) 3. Developed industrialization (better health care) 4. Post-Industrial Equilibrium (low birth/death rates) 1234

58 Demographic Transition in Denmark Core (low birth/death rates)

59 Demographic Transition in Chile Semi-periphery

60 Demographic Transition in Cape Verde, Africa Periphery (high birth/death rates)



63 Population growth in Periphery: Cause or symptom of poverty and environmental degradation?

64 Fertility Rate (# children per woman of childbearing age)

65 Not confirmed in reality Malthus Theory of “Overpopulation”

66 Ehrlich Theory of “Population Bomb” Population growth would deplete resources –Can be true on local/national level Treats population as cause

67 Core responsibility for Periphery growth Core consumes far more resources Demands cheap, unskilled young labor Population growth is a symptom of poverty

68 Why parents in Periphery have kids Better chance for one kid to survive Bring in the crops and income Help parents in old age Women often lack power to not have kids

69 Women’s empowerment: Contraception Rates

70 Policies to lower birth rate Voluntary –Availability of birth control –Incentives for small families Forced –One-child policy (China) –Coercive “population control” Social –Empowerment of women –Better health care and education –End to child labor –Social security

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