Presentation on theme: "Read pages 225-226 in Geography Alive. Write these questions on page 57 ISN and answer them 1. Define demography. 2. Define population pyramids 3. On page."— Presentation transcript:
Read pages 225-226 in Geography Alive. Write these questions on page 57 ISN and answer them 1. Define demography. 2. Define population pyramids 3. On page 226, according to the pyramid, name two things that will happen to Europe’s population by 2025. 4. According to a population pyramid’s shape, how do we know a country will be losing people?
Europe is losing population! In your notes, list three reasons why a country (or in this case a continent) would lose population. Are your reasons any of these? 1. more deaths than births 2. high emigration (bad economy, natural disasters, political instability) 3. war 4. disease or famine
Populations change in three ways: 1. death 2. birth 3. migration
Europe population facts Russia has the most people followed by Germany If the world were shrunk to 100 people keeping all percentages the same, Europe would have 12 of those people and North and South America 13. 15 European countries listed in your book’s Global Data Bank are losing population The country losing the most of population is Ukraine. It will lose over ¼ of its people by 2050. Over 232,000 have emigrated to the U.S.
Population Pyramid definition A series of bar graphs that show age structure of a population by sex
Parts of the Pyramid Age groups (Cohorts) Percentage of the whole population Gender (Sex)
3 main types of Pyramids Rapid growth – big base “The Christmas Tree” Slow growth – “The box”. The United States Negative growth – loss of population. “The Cup” Baby Boom
Baby Boom - A sudden, large, sustained increase in the birthrate, especially the one in the United States and Canada from 1946-1964. Boomers are now between 47 and 65. Presidents Clinton, George W. Bush and Obama are all “Boomers.” There were 80 million babies born in this period, more than in any other. 1957 was the height. There were 78 million boomers in 2005 1 in 4 people is a “boomer” The first boomer turned 65 last year
Some pyramids don’t fit the mold of the main 3. What’s going on here?
The pyramid indicates that there were fewer young men than young women. This was of course the result of the loss of life incurring during World War II. There were also fewer births after the war due to the shortage of men.
Demographic Transition Model (pg. 228) Most populations go through 4 stages of development: Stage 1 – Low population growth (high birth and death rates) Stage 2 – Rapid growth (Birth rates high,death rates drop) Stage 3 – Slow growth (Birth rates drop and death rates stay low) Stage 4 – Negative growth. (Birth and death rates drop to low levels)
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) based on average birth rates Mali and Niger in West Africa have TFRs over 7 The average number of births per woman Mali will double its population in 26 years Singapore has a TFR of 1.07 and Canada 1.61. China is 1.75. They will lose population. The EU is 1.5! The TFR for the world is 2.59
Replacement Rate The TFR that is needed for a population to replace itself or zero population growth. It is 2.1 babies in developing countries. Higher in countries with high death and emigration rates BUT, it is only 2.1 if (mortality) rates and migration rates remain constant.
Other terms Mortality rates - number of deaths per thousand people. It is 8.37 per 1,000 for the world and U.S. 23.74 in Angola. Birth rates – number of births per 1,000 people per year. 13.83 in US, 51.08 in Niger. Growth rate – percent change in population over time. growth rate = birth rate — death rate + net immigration rate ÷ 1,000 Dependency ratio – comparison of working age with those who don’t work Formula: People 65 and over + children 14 and Under ÷ people who work × 100 Migration rate – Immigrants – emigrants ÷ 1,000. US is 4.25; United Arab Emirates is 21.71 Life expectancy – number of years a person is expected to live. In the US is ranked 36 th at 78.3. Japan is 1 st at 82.6. Swaziland is last at 31.88
Group 1: List the Causes of Negative growth and the problems with it (page 229) Group 2 – List ways a country can handle negative growth (page 230) Group 3 – List the causes of an aging population. (Page 231) Group 4 – List the problems caused by an aging population (page 231) Group 5 – What can a country do about its aging population (page 232) Group 6 – List the causes and problems caused by workforce decline (page 233) Group 7 – What are some ways countries can deal with workforce decline (page 234)
Dilemma 1: Italy Causes of negative growth: high cost of living forces husband, wife to work Good daycare hard to find Family planning methods Negative growth leads to loss of economic, military, political power Dilemma 2: Spain Causes of population aging: More old than young people Rise in life expectancy Drop in birth rate Baby boomers age Aging populations can lead to pension and health care problems
Dilemma 3: Germany What causes a workforce to decline: An aging population Birth rate decreases Declining workforce cannot support dependents and may hurt business