Presentation on theme: "Applying Population Ecology: The Human Population"— Presentation transcript:
1 Applying Population Ecology: The Human Population Chapter 5Applying the principles of population dynamics andsustainability to the growth of the human population
2 Current Population Trends World population = 6.4 billion (6,400,000) in 2004Doubled since 1963 = 3.2 billionIn 2050 could be 7.2 – 10.6 billionAmplifies all environmental problemsLargest increase expected in developing countries (approximately 97%)Decreasing in some developed countriesRate actually decreased between , but the population has still doubled from 3.2 –6.4 billion
3 Rate = 80 million new people/year + New York City every month+ Germany every year+ United States every 3.7 years
4 Washington State Population Our jobs as scientists have certainly changed from those days of when our early explorers ventured into our state. And they will keep changing with our growing population, as the pressures on our resources keep growing as well.
6 Factors Affecting Human Population Size Population change equationPopulation change = (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration)Crude birth rate = births per 1000 people in population per yearCrude death rate = deaths per 1000 people in population per year
7 Varies between regions Total Fertility Rate (TFR) - Number of children a woman has during her lifetime, averaged for population.same as biotic potential (r)Replacement Level Fertility - Number of children needed to replace everyone in the population.Varies between regions2.1 with low infant mortality2.5 with high infant mortalityZero Population Growth - Birth rate equals death rate.
8 Sex Ratio - Age Distribution Sex Ratio- Relative number of males and females in a populationAge Distribution - Number of individuals of each age in a populationTogether they tell how a population will grow
9 Population Age Structure Developing CountriesDevelopedCountriesGrowth is determined by teenagers – the population wave ofthe future. 30% of pop’n <15 years = 1.9 billion more intoreproductive years.
11 Population Trend Comparisons Developed CountriesLow infant mortality rateLife expectancy 77 yearsTotal fertility rate = 2.021% population <1512% population >65Per capita GDP = $36,110Developing CountriesHigh infant mortality rateLife expectancy 52 yearsTotal fertility rate = 5.744% population <153% population >65Per capita GDP = $800
12 Human Population Issue Several factors determine the impact of a society on natural resources.Population sizePopulation densityDegree of technological developmentDemography - Study of populations and their characteristics.Larger ecological footprint in U.S. than in developing countries. Why?
14 The fertility rateshave significantlyfallen since 1950.
15 Factors Affecting Birth Rates and Total Fertility Rates Children in Labor ForceCost of raising and educating childrenAvailability of pension systemsUrbanizationEducation and employment for womenInfant mortality rateAverage marrying ageAbortionAvailability of birth control
16 Major social factor determining family size is the role of women in society. Early marriages foster high fertility rates.Lack of education opportunities for women reduces their options.When level of education increases, fertility rates fall.The most important factor is the ability of women to control the size of their family.Access to birth control is key.
24 US Immigration ratesImmigration accounts for 41% of pop’n growth in the U.S.Should we have tougher immigration laws to help preserve ournatural resources?
25 Demographic Transition As countries become industrialized, death rates, then birthrates decline.
26 Case Study: Slowing Population Growth in India Generally disappointing results1952 – 400 million2004 – 1.2 billionPoor planningBureaucratic inefficiencyLow status of womenExtreme povertyLack of supportCulture – Indian women believe you need children to work, care for when they are old.
27 Case Study: Slowing Population Growth in China Economic incentives (food, large pensions, better housing, salary bonuses, free schooling)Free medical careFree sterilizationLocally administeredVery intrusive and coerciveProblem with parents selecting for malesFertility rate decreased from 5.7 in 1972 to 1.7 in 2004.
38 Beneficial is all a matter of one’s perspective…..
39 Urban Land-Use Planning and Control Property taxesZoningSmart growthUrban growth boundaryGreenbelts
40 Growth Management Act 1990The GMA requires state and local governments to manage Washington’s growth by identifying and protecting critical areas and natural resource lands, designating urban growth areas, preparing comprehensive plans and implementing them through capital investments and development regulations.GMA is passed to help protect areas critical for natural resources by concentrating growth in urban areas
41 Public voices concerns at GMA hearing - Sounding off: Land division and road upgrades among issues addressed at four-hour hearing
42 Transportation Mass transit vs. automobile What makes one or the other feasible?Why is most of the US developed around cars? When did it happen?Where does mass transit work?What are the pros and cons to each?