2Tajikistan Education Structure Education System Structure and Enrollments 2007Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAnalysis: Sub-sections are not in proportion. All data, preprimay-12, include all programs, both academic and vocational. Public tertiary education includes both academic and vocational courses of study. Tajikistan does not allow private education. All education is publically-funded and administered.Data Notes:Gross numbers NER GERPre-primary 61, % 9.0%Primary 680, % 99.8%Lower Secondary 822,153 N/A 95.2%Upper Secondary 190,122 N/A 54.7%TVET Secondary 23,284 N/A 12.2%Total Secondary 1,012, % 83.6%Tertiary 147,294 N/A 19.8%Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
3Tajikistan Education Structure Compulsory education in Tajikistan is grades 1-9.Education is free to citizens. Private education is not allowed.Education Configuration and Enrollment Percentages% Net Enrollment% Gross EnrollmentClassificationLevel/GradeAges2007Pre-primaryPre-school3-67%9%Pre-universityElementary, grades 1-47-1097%100%Basic Secondary, grades 5-911-1581%*95%Secondary, grades 10-1116-1855%Vocational secondary, grades 10-11N/A12%ProfessionalEducationUndergraduate study18-2220%**Post graduate study22+*Includes all secondary. ** Includes all tertiary.Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAnalysisNote:Definitions:Net enrollment: Ratio of children of official school age for a particular grade or education level, enrolled in a particular grade or level, expressed as a percentage of the population in that same age group.Gross enrollment: Total enrolment (regardless of age), as a percentage of the population in the official age group corresponding to a particular level of education.N/A – Not AvailableSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
4Tajikistan Population Structure 68% of the population is below the age of 30.The 0-14 year olds, at 38% of society, will continue to pressure the education and employment systems for many years to come.Source: International Labor Organization (ILO)Analysis: The total population is 6,780,000. Tajikistan is a young society. Its youthful population will continue to stress the efficiency of the system and increase demand for all levels of education. The quality of education they receive is vital to the economic growth of the country.Data Notes:% Whole Numbers (000)0-14 years 38.0% 2,579.5015-29 years 29.9% 2,026.9030-65 years 27.9% 1,894.3065+ years 4.1%Source: International Labor Organization
5Tajikistan Relevant Policies: Education PolicyRelevant Policies:National Strategy for Educational DevelopmentTajikistan National Poverty Reduction Strategy PaperEFA Fast Track Initiative Awards (2), $18.4 million,Policies are available at:Source:Data Notes:National Strategy for Educational Development (NSED) objectives:1. Improved management system of educational services.2. Increased efficiency of the educational system through expanded decentralization andstrengthening of institutional and human capacity.3. Provision of the quality of education at all levels in accordance with the Goals of theWorld Movement “Education for All” and Millennium Development Goals.4. Provision of equal access to base education and other levels of education on acompetitive basis.5. Improved infrastructure and material-technical base of the educational system.12Tajikistan National Poverty Reduction Strategy objectives:improvement of the education management system;establishment of a more effective system for the use of available resources;3) improvement of methodological and personnel support for the education system;4) better access to education for girls and boys and children from socially vulnerable segments of the population;5) upgrading of the material and technical base of the education sector.EFA (Education for All) Fast Track Initiative AwardComponent 1: Improving the learning environmentComponent 2: In-service training of pedagogical and managerial personnel.Component 3: Policy reform, research and evaluation.Component 4: Capacity building and grants management.
6Tajikistan Education Access: Pre-university Primary and lower secondary enrollments have increased almost to capacity.Upper secondary enrollments are increasing at the same rate (11%) but have managed to attain just over 50% enrollment.Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAnalysis:Data notes: Pre-university net enrollmentsPre-primary 8.0% 6.8%Primary* 77.5% 97.2%Lower Secondary** 84.0% 95.2%Upper Secondary** 43.0% 54.7%TVET Secondary** 22.0% 12.2%Total Secondary 62.7% 81.3%*Primary data: from 1991**Lower, upper and TVET secondary data: gross enrollments.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
7Education Access: Tertiary TajikistanEducation Access: TertiaryThe percentage difference in male-female enrollments has been steadily increasing since 1990.The 20% tertiary enrollment rate is close to the ASEAN average of 23%Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAnalysis: : Only one private university operates in Tajikistan but amid much controversy and pressure from the government.Data Notes: Tertiary EnrollmentsMaleFemaleTotalDifference Male/FemaleDefinitions:ASEAN: Association of South East NationsSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
8Education Access: Gender TajikistanEducation Access: GenderThe gender parity index for this level is .96 indicating that girls attend primary education in almost equal numbers as boys.Source: World Bank EdStats, UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAnalysis:Definitions: Gender parity index (GPI): refers to the ratio of the female to male net enrollment ratios. A GPI of 1 indicates parity between sexesData notes: Primary Net Enrollments by GenderMaleFemaleSource: World Bank EdStats, UNESCO Institute for Statistics
9Education Access: Gender TajikistanEducation Access: GenderA serious difference of almost 27% exists between male and female enrollments at the upper secondary level.Gender parity at the upper secondary level is 0.62.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Tajikistan Ministry of EducationAnalysis: The low enrollments in upper secondary, especially of females, is a serious issue. Young women are seemingly finding it not possible or are not interested in continuing their education to grade 12. One reason which could affect attendance rates of females could be lack of adequate sanitary conditions in rural schools. Various facilities surveys in 2002 found that anywhere from 50-87% of schools in several rural regions lacked adequate sanitary conditions (reported in Education for All Mid-term Review 2007, by the Tajikistan Ministry of Education).Data Notes: Secondary Gross Enrollments by GenderLower Secondary Male 88.0% 87.6% 98.6% 97.8% 99.8%Female 80.0% 78.9% 87.1% 87.4% 90.5%Upper Secondary Males 54.0% 54.8% 61.0% 67.5% 67.9%Female 32.0% 35.3% 36.0% 41.2% 41.2%Difference Male/Female Up Sec 22.0% 19.5% 25% 26.3% 26.7%Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Tajikistan Ministry of Education
10Education Quality: Teachers TajikistanEducation Quality: TeachersThe percentage of teachers with a higher education level has declined from 77% in 1991 to 64% in 2007.Source: World Bank (2008) Tajikistan Second Programmatic Public Expenditure Review and Tajikistan Ministry of EducationAnalysis: In 2004, Tajikistan had 103,174 teachers for grades 1-11.Data Notes: Teachers’ Education Attainment in Descending Order of Level of Study1. Higher Education 64%2. Incomplete HE 7%3. Vocational Training 16%4. Secondary 10%5. Other 3%Definitions:Higher Education: 4 year academic degree including pedagogical collegeIncomplete HE: incomplete 4 years of degree studyPedagogical College: 2 year course of study for teacher trainingSecondary: No post-secondary education.Other: ?Source: World Bank (2008) Tajikistan Second Programmatic Public Expenditure Review,Tajikistan Ministry of Education.
11Education Quality: Teachers TajikistanEducation Quality: Teachers25% of schools report a teacher vacancy rate of 10% or more.Teacher vacancies are most serious in the rural regions, such as Khatlon, where 91% of school principals have reported shortages.Source: World Bank (2008) Public Expenditure ReviewAnalysis: Tajikistan reportedly has an abundance of teachers but the low salaries deters them from working in schools. As a result, many of the schools report shortages. Reported recent salary raises for teachers have attracted some of them back into the profession.Data notes: Principal-reported Teacher Shortages.Dushanbe 46%RRP 84%Sugd 67%Khatlon 91%GBAO 78%Urban 55%Rural 85%Total 81%Definitions:Dushanbe: capital city.RRS: Regions of Republican Subordination in the center of the country and province that Dushanbe is located in.Sugd: the northwestern most provinceKhatlon: the southwestern most province, the most rural province.GBAO: the southeastern very large provinceSource: World Bank (2008) Public Expenditure Review
12Education Quality: Completion TajikistanEducation Quality: CompletionAlthough gross completion rates are over 100%, boys are slightly more successful at completing primary education than girls.Source: World Bank EdStatsAnalysis: Tajikistan has seen great success at getting students to complete primary education.Data: Primary Completion RatesMalesFemalesSource: World Bank EdStats
13Education Quality: Testing TajikistanEducation Quality: TestingTajikistan does not participate in international testing such as the TIMSS.Source:Analysis:.Definition: TIMSS: Trends in International Math and Science Study, a test of math and science for 4th and 8th graders, is used to compare educational achievement on an international basis. The exam tests student knowledge of basic math and science concepts which should be standard curricula offerings for grade 4 and 8 learners.Data Notes:Source:
14Tajikistan Education Equity: Gender/ Geographic Disparities A gender gap exists throughout all grades of the system.The difference in male-female enrollments is most serious from grade 7 (11%) to grade 11 (37%).Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAnalysis: Despite success at the primary level, the system is challenged at the secondary levels to provide education for all of its students.Data Notes: Enrollment by Gender and GradeMale Female Average Difference%%%%%%%%%%%Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
15Education Equity: Income Disparities TajikistanEducation Equity: Income DisparitiesGrades 1,3, and 7 have overall good access rates by all income groups.Students from all wealth quintiles have difficulties remaining in school until grade 9, the poorest most so.Source: World Bank EdStatsAnalysis: Students from all wealth quintiles enroll almost equally at least up to grade seven. By grade nine, all students have difficulty remaining in school, but the poorest students more-so than those from the wealthiest quintile.Data notes: Enrollment by Income Quintile and Selected Grades 2005Grade 1 Grade5 Grade 7 Grade 9PoorestRichestSource: World Bank EdStats
16Education Efficiency: Expenditure TajikistanEducation Efficiency: ExpenditureTajikistan’s proportion of public spending on education is comparable to other CAR countries.On the contrary, it spends the least amount of its GDP on education.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics: data from various yearsAnalysis:Data notes: Regional Education Spending Patterns% GDP % Public SpendingTajikistan 3.4% 18.2%Uzbekistan 9.4% 17.8%Kyrgyz Republic 5.3% 19.2%Turkmenistan 6.1% 26.7%Kazakhstan 3.6% 12.1%ASEAN 4.2%OECD 5.4% 1.0%Definitions:OECD: Organization of Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentASEAN: Association of South East Asia NationsCAR: Central Asia RegionSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics: data from various years,
17Education Efficiency: Expenditure TajikistanEducation Efficiency: ExpenditureAllocating 55% of the budget to secondary education has signaled the government’s intention to place more focus on this level.Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsAnalysis:Data notes: Share of Education Spending by Level 2007 (%)Pre-primary 4.00%Primary 27.00%Secondary 54.00%Tertiary 5.00%Other 9.00%Definitions:Tertiary: An academic course of study of 4 or more years after secondary education culminating in a Bachelor’s, Master’s or PhD degree.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
18Education Efficiency: Repetition TajikistanEducation Efficiency: RepetitionRepetition rates in Tajikistan are negligible with primary rate at 0.2% and secondary at 0.4% in 2007.Source: World Bank EdStatsAnalysis:Data Notes:Source: World Bank EdStats
19Education: Conclusion TajikistanEducation: ConclusionSuccesses:Access: Near universal primary enrollment. Upper secondary and tertiary enrollments increasing steadily .Quality: Primary completion rates high.Equity: Almost equal access to lower grades by all income levels.Efficiency: Negligible repetition at all grades Budget allocated to level most in need.Challenges:Access: Poor access to upper secondary by all students.Quality: No assessment of student academic achievement against international norms. Wide-spread teacher shortages. Declining teacher academic preparation.Equity: Female students lowest access rates to all levels but especially upper secondary.Efficiency:Analysis: Other issues that come out in the literature that are not captured here are the generally poor condition of the infrastructure (no heat, no water and proper sanitary conditions, no windows, destroyed/broken buildings, etc) and not enough school facilities, a cumbersome, out-dated curriculum left over from the Soviet era, poor capacity at the government level to lead, and lack of enough and relevant textbooks.