Presentation on theme: "Measuring Gender and Education Quality - The Need for Social Outcomes Huma Zia, Sahar Saeed and Saba Saeed Comparative and International Education Society."— Presentation transcript:
Measuring Gender and Education Quality - The Need for Social Outcomes Huma Zia, Sahar Saeed and Saba Saeed Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) 10 th to 15 th March 2014 Participation at CIES Supported by: Open Society Foundation (OSF)
INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND Major focus of the global community on school enrollment. 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in school (UNESCO, 2012). Over time progress in reducing out-of-school children has slowed considerably. In spite of increase in access learning levels are low-at least 250 million primary-school age children are not able to read, write or count well enough (GMR,2012). Children from poorest households are at least three times more likely to be out of school than children from the richest households (MDG Report, 2013).
Gender inequalities and socioeconomic disparities persist (EFA Agenda for South Asia, 2013). It is important that in the midst of goal setting for 2015 and post 2015, the unfinished agenda is not left behind. Access at the expense of learning is unsustainable!!! INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND
Facts from Pakistan Pakistan has amongst the widest education inequalities in the world. Two-thirds of Pakistan’s out-of-school children are girls. Literacy rates remain higher for urban areas when compared to rural & much higher for boys when compared to girls (clearly reflected in ASER 2013). Results from Pakistan (ASER Pakistan 2012/3) reveal a majority of 5-16 to be not achieving grade 2 learning competencies.
PURPOSE OF STUDY ASER: ANNUAL STATUS OF EDUCATION REPORT, PAKISTAN LEARNING GAPS (WEALTH, PUBLIC /PRIVATE SCHOOLING) GENDER DISPARITIES IN LEARNING OUTCOMES (WEALTH)
METHODOLOGY & SURVEY DESIGN Using ASER India 2102 data for comparison purposes only! Annual Status of Education Report Pakistan 2013: 138rural & 13 urban districts 2012: 136 rural & 6 urban districts Citizen led large scale national household survey (3-16 years)Quality of education in rural and some urban areas (5-16 years).Seeks to provide evidence on learning and access. Learning Assessments (literacy & numeracy), School Observation (Pvt. & Public)
Evidence of Disparities in Education The Case of Rural Pakistan The data set used to highlight the challenge of equity and to identify the relationship between students’ performance and the disadvantages they face on account of their background. Household indicators captured in ASER used as a baseline to determine the wealth status of households. An ASER composite wealth index constructed by integrating all the households indicators in the HH survey form.
RESULTS – Evidence of Disparities in Education: The Case of Rural Pakistan
ASER Wealth Index (Out-of-school children) Overall, percentage of OOSC decreased in 2013 ~ WI 2013
ASER Wealth Index: Learning levels (2012) The learning level of children in all three subjects increases for the richest quartile. Poorest have the lowest learning levels: (16% Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto, 15% English, and 14% Math) and richest have the highest learning levels (42% Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto, 42% English, and 38% Math).
ASER Wealth Index: Learning levels (2013) Follows the same trends as previous year: Poorest continue to have the lowest learning levels – although slight improvement can be seen - 19% Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto, 17% English, and 17% Math.
The percentage of males and females enrolled in schools improves for the richest. Girls lag behind boys disproportionately if poor. Wealth Index: Enrollment by Gender
Wealth Index: Learning Levels by Gender (2012) Learning levels of males and females improve from the poorest quartile to the richest quartile. Highest learning levels of females are seen in the richest quartile across the three competency levels (41% Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto, 40% English, and 36% Mathematics). Similarly males falling in the richest income group perform better in language and numeracy tasks than children falling in low income groups.
Wealth Index: Learning Levels by Gender (2013) Learning levels of males and females improve from the poorest quartile to the richest quartile. Highest learning levels of females are seen in the richest quartile across the three competency levels (42% Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto, 41% English, and 36% Mathematics) – 1% improvement in English & local language. WI 2012 & 2013 show similar trends – very slight improvement over the year.
Evidence of disparities (Pakistan 2012)
Evidence of disparities (India 2012)
Learning Gaps: Public and Private Schooling (Pakistan 2012)
Learning Levels of children (class 5 - by type of school and province) Territory Name Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto (Can read at least story) English (Can read at least sentences) Arithmetic (Can at least do division) PublicPrivatePublicPrivatePublicPrivate National Punjab Sindh FATA KP GB Balochistan AJK Learning Gaps: Public and Private Schooling (Pakistan 2013)
The Need for Social Outcomes MDGs do not sufficiently address the problem of intersecting inequalities (wealth, age, grade, public private). The strategies do ensure that ALL children are enrolled in school; the critical question is: are ALL children learning? The question of learning how much and what, is actively being pursued by South Asian/ African and soon Latin American citizen groups through a rigorous evidence based innovative approach.
The results of ASER 2012/3 (Pakistan) suggest that education targets should also focus on learning levels due to disparities. Global tools on learning measurement have to be aligned with new realities and challenges (pre primary, primary, post primary). Post-2015 development agenda has to involve measuring a broader range of indicators to ensure reflection of intersecting possibilities. The Need for Social Outcomes
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS Better baseline data and statistics are needed, that are popularly accessible & comprehensible. All countries should prioritize learning gaps in children from early grades through high school beyond the age and grade frameworks. The culture of assessments should be inculcated in households and communities.
“It’s important to invest more in children most excluded & girls to address the factors hindering the development of such groups from education as a fundamental right (5-16 years)”