Presentation on theme: "Tertiary Education The State of Education Series March 2013 A Global Report."— Presentation transcript:
Tertiary Education The State of Education Series March 2013 A Global Report
Tertiary Education: Indicators This presentation includes data on: n Gross Enrollment Rates (GER) for pre- primary and tertiary n Correlations between GDP per capita and enrollment rates for each educational level n Income/Gender/Location Disparities n Expenditures on Tertiary Education
How many youth are enrolled? Tertiary – Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) n Around 30% of tertiary age youth were enrolled in tertiary education 2010. This figure was a 10 percentage point improvement over 2000 (19%). n ECA has consistently had the highest tertiary GERs of any region. Over half (55.6%) of tertiary age youth were enrolled in 2010 which is a 17 percentage point increase over 2000. n EAP has more than doubled its tertiary GER over time. n SSA lags behind other regions with 6.8% of youth enrolled in 2010. Almost ¾ of tertiary age youth around the world are not enrolled in tertiary education.
Which countries have the lowest tertiary enrollment rates? n These countries have less than 4% of tertiary age students enrolled in tertiary education. n 33 countries have less than 10 percent of tertiary age youth enrolled. n 50 countries have more than half of tertiary age youth enrolled. n 8 countries have tertiary GERs higher than 80% and 4 countries have tertiary GERs higher than 90%: Finland, the United States, Cuba, and Korea, Rep.
Which countries have improved tertiary enrolment rates the most? n These countries have improved their tertiary gross enrolment rates by 27 to 70 percentage points between 1999-2001 and 2009-2011. n 7 countries more than doubled their tertiary GER – Cuba, Venezuela, Cyprus, Montenegro, Czech Rep., Romania, and Armenia. n All of the countries are in LAC or ECA.
Gross Enrollment Ratio. Tertiary Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011) The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.
Do countries with higher income per capita have higher tertiary enrollment rates? n Most countries with gross national income (GNI) per capita less than $1000 have tertiary GERs less than 11%. Tajikistan (20%) and Kyrgyz Rep (49%) are the two exceptions. n Countries with GNI pc more than $20,000 have tertiary GERs higher than 50% except for Qatar (10%), Luxembourg (10.5%), Brunei (17.2%), and Liechtenstein (36.0%). Most countries with a GNI pc higher than $20,000 have tertiary GERs higher than 50%.
Which regions have reached gender parity in tertiary enrollments? n In 2000, the world gender parity index (GPI) for tertiary enrollments was 1.0 – perfect gender parity. Since then, female GERs have been higher than male GERs, and the GPI has been moving above 1.0. n MNA is the only region within +/- 0.05 of gender parity in 2010. LAC and ECA have consistently had higher female GERs, and EAP has reversed from a male bias to a female bias. n SAS and SSA have maintained a strong male bias in tertiary enrolments over time. Gender disparities in tertiary enrolment rates vary greatly across regions.
Does gender parity exist in tertiary enrollments in most countries? n Only 9 countries are within +/-0.05 of gender parity in tertiary enrollments. n 63% of countries have a female bias in tertiary enrolments vs. 37% with higher male enrolment rates. n One country – Vietnam – has perfect gender parity (1.0). n In 10 countries, the female GER more than doubles the male GER. These countries are island nations in LAC and Qatar (see next slide). The majority of countries have higher female enrolment rates than male enrolment rates in tertiary education.
Which countries have the largest gender disparities in tertiary enrolments?
Do gender, income, or location disparities exist in post-secondary attendance ratios? n Levels of gender disparity in post- secondary attendance are much lower than levels of location and income disparity. More girls than boys attend post-secondary schools in EAP, ECA, and LAC. n Rural areas have between 5 (SSA) and 15 (LAC) percent lower attendance ratios than urban areas. n Income is the largest source of disparity across regions. Income disparities range from 8 percentage points in SSA to 34 in LAC. 2 Income is the largest source of disparity in post- secondary gross attendance ratios in all regions.
Which countries spend the least per student on tertiary education? n On average, countries spend 91% of per capita GDP per tertiary student. The median spending is 30%. These countries spend between 3.5 and 12%. n Three countries are in ECA and 3 are in EAP. n Korea, Rep. has the 12 th lowest spending level, but has a 103% gross enrollment rate. n Six of 9 countries have private enrollment shares higher than 50%.
Which countries spend the most per student on tertiary education? n All the listed countries are in Sub-Saharan Africa. n These countries spend from 2 to 18 times GDP per capita on each tertiary student. n Despite high spending, all the countries in the list have gross enrollment rates less than 8%. These countries are all within the bottom 20 countries in tertiary enrolment rates.
Public Expenditure per Pupil as a % of GDP per capita. Tertiary (2006-2012) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.
This presentation utilizes the following data sources: 1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query u The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release that included 2010 data for most indicators/countries. u Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in the EdStats Query. EdStats Query 2) Income/Gender/Location Disparity slides were based on data and analysis extracted from: u Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living Standards Measurement Studies for 1985-2007; Reports were generated through ADePT Edu (2011).ADePT Edu Data Sources
The State of Education Series The following State of Education presentations are available on the EdStats website:EdStats website Educational Levels: n Pre-Primary Education Pre-Primary Education n Primary Education Primary Education n Secondary Education Secondary Education n Tertiary Education Tertiary Education Topics: n Access Access n Quality Quality n Expenditures Expenditures n Literacy Literacy n Equity Equity n Gender Gender