2 Cambodia Education Structure Education System Structure and Enrollments 2007Source: World Bank EdStats, Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMISData Notes: Sub-sections are not in proportion. All data, preprimay-12, include all programs, public and private. Private institutions offer academic options at all levels of the system including vocational post-secondary education although the number of students they enroll is not large. The tertiary level has twice as many private institutes as the public system. Public tertiary education includes both academic and vocational courses of study.Definitions:EMIS: Education Management Information SystemTVET: Technical Vocational Education and TrainingSource: World Bank EdStats, Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS
3 Cambodia Education Structure The large discrepancy between net and gross enrollments indicates a large number of over-age children attending school at that level.Education Configuration and Enrollment Percentages% Net Enrollments% Gross EnrollmentsClassificationLevel/GradeAges2007Pre-primaryPre-school3-511%Pre-universityPrimary, grades 1-66-1189%119%Lower Secondary, grades 7-912-1433.7%56%Upper secondary, grades 10-1215-1712.5%23%Vocational secondary, grades 10-12N/A8%TertiaryPost secondary TVET18-225%*2 year degree18-204 year degree* Includes all categories of tertiarySource: World Bank EdStats, Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMISAnalysis: Compulsory education in Cambodia is from grades 1 to 9. Large numbers of over-age students are present in the system especially at the primary level. This was as a result of the abolition of school enrollment fees in 2001 and the focused primary school construction program of the government particularly in the rural areas of the country. The entrance of a large over-age population in the beginning levels, while showing strength of the system to accommodate students, however, adds to repetition and drop-out problems of later years when these children and their parents deem them too old to be participating in education.Definitions: N/A – Not AvailableEMIS: Education Management Information SystemNet enrollment: Ratio of children of official school age for a particular grade or education level, enrolled in a particular grade or level, expressed as a percentage of the population in that same age group.Gross enrollment: Total enrolment (regardless of age), as a percentage of the population in the official age group corresponding to a particular level of education.Source: World Bank EdStats, Cambodia Ministry of Education , Youth and Sport EMIS
4 Cambodia Population Structure 69% of Cambodia’s population is below the age of 30.The education opportunities that students receive now will seriously affect the country’s economic situation for many years.Source: International Labor Organization (ILO)Analysis: Cambodia is a young society. The proportion of young people in the population is pressuring the education system and labor markets. The large percentage of youth stresses the efficiency of the system and increases demand for the upper levels of education (secondary and post-secondary). The system must offer good quality education in order to meet the country’s demand for skilled workers and support economic growth.Data Notes: Population Structure0-14 years 35.8%15-29 years 31.6%30-65 years 27.1%65+ years 3.3%Source: International Labor Organization
5 Cambodia Relevant Education Policies: Education PolicyRelevant Education Policies:Child Friendly School Master PlanEducation Strategic PlanEducation Sector Support ProgramEducation for All National PlanNon-formal Education PolicyEFA Fast Track Initiative Award, $56.4 millionAll policies available at:Source: websites notedAnalysis: Cambodia has a strong policy framework in place to guide education reform.Data Notes: Policy HighlightsChild Friendly School (CFS) Master Plan:Shows guidelines, contents and activity frameworks for implementation of CFS education.Education Strategic Plan (ESP):Ensuring equitable access to educationImproving education quality and efficiencyCapacity building for education decentralization.Pro-poor education financing strategies.Education Sector Support Program (ESSP):Shows main programs, activities and financial plan to achieve indicators in 13 sub-sectors of education: service efficiency, early childhood, primary, lower secondary, upper secondary, higher education, teacher development, instructional materials, non-formal education, youth and sport development, strengthened monitoring systems, secondary scholarships for poor, and facilities development.4. Education for All (EFA) National Plan:Main targets: increased focus on access to basic education especially for marginalized children, better teacher deployment and utilization, improved use of existing facilities, increased number of instructional hours, and continued expansion of classroom facilities especially completion of primary schools and building of new secondary schools.5. Non-formal Education (NFE) Policy:Access to lifelong learning opportunities, promotion of literacy and continuing education, provide information and knowledge of vocational skill training.EFA (Education for All) Fast Track Initiative:3 major goals: Expanding early childhood education, improving primary education access and quality (mostly by school construction), promoting institutional development and capacity building (mostly by teacher training).
6 Cambodia Education Access: Pre-university Lower and upper secondary levels have doubled in the last 10 years.Secondary enrollments are increasing at an average growth rate of 3.1% a year (2.4% at primary).Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMISAnalysis:Data: Net EnrollmentsPre-primary N/A 11PrimaryLow SecUpper SecEnrollment by Geographic LocationPre-school Primary Low Sec Up secTotal 45,068 2,094, ,057 82,110Urban 15, , ,297 62,180Rural 28,598 1,411, ,758 19,930Remote ,706 1,002 0Definitions:Primary: grades 1-6Low Sec: Lower Secondary, grades 7-9Upper Sec: Upper Secondary, grades 10-12EMIS: Education Management Information SystemSource: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS
7 Education Access: Tertiary CambodiaEducation Access: TertiaryHigher education enrollments at 5% are considerably below the ASEAN regional average of 23%.Private universities and colleges outnumber public universities at a 2:1 ratio (private:40 and public: 22).Source: UNESCO UIS, EFA-FTI Cambodia Report 2007Analysis: The MoEYS admits that higher education remains beyond the reach of the majority ofthe poor and remote/rural segments of the society and has not focused many resources on the sub-sector. The private sector has increasingly stepped in to fill the need and desire for higher education. Private universities receive little oversight from the Ministry of Education. The government’s self-proclaimed responsibility for higher education is quality assurance although there is not yet an independent accreditation mechanism to assess quality at this level. The government also awards scholarships to deserving students from the poorer segments of the population to encourage more equitable access to higher education.Data Notes:Male Female Total2002 4% 1% 3%2004 4% 2% 3%6% 3% 5%Definitions:ASEAN: Association of South Eastern NationsEFA FTI: Education for All Fast Track InitiativeSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, EFA-FTI Cambodia Report 2007
8 Education Access: Gender CambodiaEducation Access: GenderGender parity has almost been reached at the pre-university level (0.9).Girls comprise 47% of the student population in grades 1-12.Source: World Bank EdStatsAnalysis:Data Notes: Net Enrollments by GenderPrimary SecondaryBoys Girls Boys GirlsSource: World Bank EdStats
9 Education Quality: Teachers CambodiaEducation Quality: TeachersMost primary teachers have a grade 9 education and no graduate work.However, almost 100% of them have received pedagogical pre-service training.Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMISAnalysis: Because the numbers are so small, individuals with graduate work (71) are not showing up on the graph, and those without pedagogy training (634) is showing up as 0%. Almost 100% of teachers have received 1-2 years of pre-service training in pedagogy.Data Notes: Education Attainment of Primary Teachers 2006Whole NumbersPrimary 6.2% 2,979Lower Secondary 68.9% 33,094Upper Secondary 24.7% 11,847Graduate 0.0% 71W/o Pedagogy Training 0.1% 634Total Primary Teachers 47,991Definitions:L. Sec.: Lower SecondaryU. Sec.: Upper SecondaryPed Trng: Pedegogical TrainingSource: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS
10 Education Quality: Class Density CambodiaEducation Quality: Class DensityHigher pupil-class ratios in secondary education underscore the inadequate number of classrooms necessary for the increasing numbers of students at this level.Source: World Bank (2006) Teaching in CambodiaAnalysis: An analysis of yearly pupil-class ratios is showing the increased demand for secondary education as students become more successful completing the primary level and transition up to secondary level. The Cambodian government has focused heavily on construction/completion of primary schools which has paid off in lower pupil-class ratios. The data is now indicating that more attention needs to be given to the secondary level of education.Data: Pupil-class Ratios2001/ / / / /06PrimaryLower SecUpper SecDefinitions: Pupil-class ratio is the total number of students divided by the available number of classrooms that they can occupy at each level. A shortage of classrooms for the amount of students will give an increased pupil-class ratio.Source: World Bank (2006) Teaching in Cambodia
11 Education Quality: Completion CambodiaEducation Quality: CompletionCambodia has had major success in increasing completion rates at the primary level with an average 12.6% increase every 2-3 years.Boys and girls now complete the level in nearly equal numbers.Source: World Bank EdStatsAnalysis:Data notes: Primary Completion RatesBoys Girls Total % ChangeAverage 12.6Source: World Bank EdStats
12 Education Quality: Completion CambodiaEducation Quality: CompletionOf secondary education completion rates, rural and poor students account for a very small number.The poorest population segment completes secondary education at a rate of less than 1%.Source: Cambodia Household Survey 2005Analysis: Primary education completion is high for all students except for the poorest students who complete the level at an almost 3 times lower rate than the richest students. The rate difference is more extreme at the secondary level: 23% less for rural students than urban students and 33% less for the poorest students in quintile one compared to the richest students in quintile 5.Data notes: Primary-secondary Completion Rates DisaggregatedPrimary SecondaryTotal 86.46% 13.02%Males 88.27% 15.55%Females 84.75% 10.38%Urban 96.96% 32.33%Rural 84.75% 8.93%Quintile % 0.33%Quintile % 33.93%Definitions:Quintile 1: poorest population segment based on household incomeQuintile 5: richest population segment based on household incomeSource: Cambodia Household Survey 2005
13 Education Quality: Testing CambodiaEducation Quality: TestingCambodia does not participate in an international achievement exam such as TIMSS.The national grade 9 exam tests students’ knowledge for matriculation to grade 10.The national grade 12 exam is used as a final completion test to grant high school diplomas or certificates (for those who fail the test) and as an entrance exam for university study.Grade 3 and grade 6 achievement tests are being trialed now for imminent national use.Results on the trialed grade 3 exam (2006) indicated that students performed poorly on grade-level math (40%) and science (37%) knowledge.Source: Kingdom of Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (2006)Analysis: Once the grade 3 and 6 achievement tests have been well-trialed and put into use regularly, Cambodia will be able to tests students’ learning achievements regularly throughout their school career and policy and implementation can be adjusted accordingly.Definition: TIMSS: Trends in International Math and Science Study, a test of math and science for 4th and 8th graders, is used to compare educational achievement on an international basis. The exam tests student knowledge of basic math and science concepts which should be standard curricula offerings for grade 4 and 8 learners.Data Notes:Source: Kingdom of Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (2006)
14 Cambodia Education Equity: Gender/ Geographic Disparities Rural students account for 67% of primary enrollments.Remote area enrollments have doubled in the last ten years and account for 7% of total primary enrollments.Source: Cambodia Ministry of EducationAnalysis: The Cambodian government has made excellent progress in increasing rural/remote primary education access in the last five years. This have been due mostly to increased facilities construction and rehabilitation in rural areas and an abolition of school enrollment fees in Remote area enrollments are growing at the fastest rate, averaging a per annum increase of 2.38 percent versus 1.48 percent for urban and 0.66 percent for rural areas.Data Notes: Net Enrollments by LocationTotal Urban Rural RemoteDefinitions:Urban, rural and remote areas are defined by the Cambodian government according to the numbers of people per square unit of land. According to the Royal Government of Cambodia (2006), 85% of the country’s population lives in the rural/remote areas.Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS
15 Education Equity: Income Disparities CambodiaEducation Equity: Income DisparitiesThe poorest students have little success in accessing secondary and university level education.Source: Cambodia Household Survey 2005Analysis: The poorest students limited ability to access secondary education is a factor of poverty and the opportunity costs of education as well as the limited number of schools in remote areas of the country.Data notes: Net Attendance by Income Quintile and Level 2005Poorest RichestPrimary 62.90% 72.50% 78.90% 82.80% 85.70%Secondary 7.20% 11.50% 17.30% 30.70% 48.90%University 0.05% 0% 0.12% 0.67% 8.80%Source: Cambodia Household Survey 2005
16 Education Efficiency: Expenditure CambodiaEducation Efficiency: ExpenditureCambodia education expenditures are low by regional standards.Source: World Bank Education at a Glance, Global Monitoring Report 2008Analysis:Data notes: Education Expenditures% GDP % Public SpendingPhilippines 2.5% 16.0%Thailand 4.3% 25.0%Cambodia 1.6% 12.4%India 3.2% 10.7%Indonesia 3.5% 17.5%Laos 3.2% 15.8%Bangladesh 2.5% 14.2%ASEAN 4.2% N/AOECD 5.4% 1.0%Definitions:OECD: Organization of Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentASEAN: Association of South East Asian NationsSource: World Bank Education at a Glance, Global Monitoring Report 2008
17 Education Efficiency: Expenditure CambodiaEducation Efficiency: ExpenditureSpending two thirds of the education budget on primary education has paid off in high enrollments in grades 1-6.Cambodia now needs to allocate more funds to the growing secondary levels of the system.Source: World Bank Education at a GlanceAnalysis:Data notes: Spending Pattern of Education Budget.Pre-primary 1Secondary 11.2Tertiary 3.4Other 20.9Source: World Bank Education at a Glance
18 Education Efficiency: Repetition CambodiaEducation Efficiency: RepetitionThe low education expenditure level in Cambodia is in part reflected in the very high repetition rates.Source: World Bank EdStats, UNESCAPAnalysis: Cambodian policy makers and leaders need to realize that the future of the country depends on an educated populace and should seriously consider committing a larger share of national resources to improving education quality in the country.Data Notes:Repetition %GDPBangladesh 7 2.5CambodiaIndiaIndonesiaPhilippinesASEAN 4.2OECD 5.6Definitions:UNESCAP: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the PacificASEAN: Association of South East Asian NationsOECD: Organization of Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentSource: World Bank EdStats, UNESCAP
19 Education Efficiency: Repetition CambodiaEducation Efficiency: RepetitionFew Cambodian children seem to get through primary education without repeating grades.Grade 9 shows a slight increase and Grade 12 a huge rate of repetition probably because of students’ failure to pass matriculation exams.Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMISAnalysis: Huge rates of repetition in grades 1 and 2 especially are probably due to poor school-readiness of children to enter formal schooling. This problem could be addressed by a comprehensive pre-school program or at a minimum, a school-readiness program at the beginning of grade 1, for all children. High repetition rates affect system efficiency and give children a poor start to their education experience.Data Notes: Repetition Rates by GradeTotalGradeGradeGradeGrade 4 7.4Grade 5 5.1Grade 6 2.8Grade 7 1.9Grade 8 1.3Grade 9 3.1GradeGradeGradeSource: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS
20 Education Efficiency: Staff Ratios CambodiaEducation Efficiency: Staff RatiosStaff ratios are steadily declining. Non-teaching staff prefer classification as teaching staff to maintain their pedagogy allowance and work a 10-month year.Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMISAnalysis: Non-teaching staff are sometimes asked to cover a class when a regular teacher is out. The non-teaching staff (such as librarian or secretary) is therefore maintained in the records as a teaching staff and counted as such in the EMIS. Non-teaching staff have little incentive to remain in their positions as it means a cut in pay, longer working hours, and loss of pedagogy allowance. Some regional and provincial education offices are having difficulty retaining office and administrative staff who want to return to teaching as quickly as possible.Data notes: Teaching –Non-teaching Staff RatiosPrimaryL. SecU. SecTotalDefinitions:.Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS
21 Education Efficiency: Private Tutoring CambodiaEducation Efficiency: Private TutoringPrivate tutoring is a common alternate occupation of teachers especially at the secondary level and in urban areas.Participation in tutoring is strongly correlated with teachers’ levels of education, with those with upper secondary education significantly more likely to tutor.In a 2006 survey, approximately 87% of lower secondary teachers reported being involved in tutoring.Collection of ‘unofficial fees’ is also a common practice in the system despite education supposedly being free to all.Informal costs cover illegal actions such as bribes to access services or gain preferential treatment, or legal actions such as procuring additional tuition.Unofficial fee collection is most widespread in urban areas as students in rural areas are too poor to pay for extra services.Despite viewing the practice as illegal, the Cambodian government acknowledges that low teacher salaries encourages them to be involved in the practice.Source: Source: World Bank (2005) Teaching in CambodiaAnalysis: The practice of charging informal fees has long been an issue in the system which the Ministry of Education finds hard-pressed to abolish as they also indulge in the practice. At the school level, the practice continues to deny equal access to education by eliminating the poorer students from participation. The government has not been receptive to suggestions from donors to control the practice by regulating it and introducing measures to ensure that malpractice by teachers is reduced as government officials themselves then would have to cease their involvement.Source: World Bank (2005) Teaching in Cambodia
22 Education: Conclusion CambodiaEducation: ConclusionSuccesses:Access: High rate of primary enrollment with gender parity.Quality: Dramatically increased grade six completion rates. 100% pre-service trained primary teachers.Equity: High primary enrollment rates from rural/remote areas.Efficiency: Low teaching/non-teaching staff ratios.Challenges:Access: Secondary enrollment challenges especially for rural/remote students. Low tertiary enrollments.Quality: Low education level of primary teachers. No systematic student academic assessment process in lower grades. High primary repetition rates.Equity: Inequitable spending patterns on secondary education levels. Inequitable access to secondary and tertiary levels by poorest students.Efficiency: Low public expenditure rates on education. Wide-spread practice of unofficial fee collection by urban teachers.
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.