Presentation on theme: "Cambodia AME EDUCATION SECTOR PROFILE. Education Structure Source: World Bank EdStats, Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS Cambodia Education."— Presentation transcript:
Cambodia AME EDUCATION SECTOR PROFILE
Education Structure Source: World Bank EdStats, Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS Cambodia Education System Structure and Enrollments 2007
Education Structure Education Configuration and Enrollment Percentages % Net Enrollments % Gross Enrollments ClassificationLevel/GradeAges2007 Pre-primaryPre-school 3-511% Pre-university Primary, grades %119% Lower Secondary, grades %56% Upper secondary, grades %23% Vocational secondary, grades N/A8% Tertiary Post secondary TVET %* 2 year degree18-20N/A 4 year degree18-22 * Includes all categories of tertiary The large discrepancy between net and gross enrollments indicates a large number of over-age children attending school at that level. Source: World Bank EdStats, Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS Cambodia
Population Structure Cambodia Source: International Labor Organization 69% of Cambodia’s population is below the age of 30. The education opportunities that students receive now will seriously affect the country’s economic situation for many years.
Education Policy Cambodia
Education Access: Pre-university Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS Lower and upper secondary levels have doubled in the last 10 years. Secondary enrollments are increasing at an average growth rate of 3.1% a year (2.4% at primary). Cambodia
Education Access: Tertiary Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, EFA-FTI Cambodia Report 2007 Higher education enrollments at 5% are considerably below the ASEAN regional average of 23%. Private universities and colleges outnumber public universities at a 2:1 ratio (private:40 and public: 22). Cambodia
Education Access: Gender Source: World Bank EdStats Gender parity has almost been reached at the pre-university level (0.9). Girls comprise 47% of the student population in grades Cambodia
Education Quality : Teachers Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS Most primary teachers have a grade 9 education and no graduate work. However, almost 100% of them have received pedagogical pre-service training. Cambodia
Education Quality: Class Density Cambodia Source: World Bank (2006) Teaching in Cambodia Higher pupil-class ratios in secondary education underscore the inadequate number of classrooms necessary for the increasing numbers of students at this level.
Education Quality: Completion Source: World Bank EdStats Cambodia has had major success in increasing completion rates at the primary level with an average 12.6% increase every 2-3 years. Boys and girls now complete the level in nearly equal numbers. Cambodia
Education Quality: Completion Cambodia Source: Cambodia Household Survey 2005 Of secondary education completion rates, rural and poor students account for a very small number. The poorest population segment completes secondary education at a rate of less than 1%.
Education Quality: Testing Source: Kingdom of Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (2006) Cambodia does not participate in an international achievement exam such as TIMSS. The national grade 9 exam tests students’ knowledge for matriculation to grade 10. The national grade 12 exam is used as a final completion test to grant high school diplomas or certificates (for those who fail the test) and as an entrance exam for university study. Grade 3 and grade 6 achievement tests are being trialed now for imminent national use. Results on the trialed grade 3 exam (2006) indicated that students performed poorly on grade-level math (40%) and science (37%) knowledge. Cambodia
Education Equity: Gender/ Geographic Disparities Cambodia Rural students account for 67% of primary enrollments. Remote area enrollments have doubled in the last ten years and account for 7% of total primary enrollments. Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS
Education Equity: Income Disparities Cambodia Source: Cambodia Household Survey 2005 The poorest students have little success in accessing secondary and university level education.
Education Efficiency: Expenditure Source: World Bank Education at a Glance, Global Monitoring Report 2008 Cambodia Cambodia education expenditures are low by regional standards.
Education Efficiency: Expenditure Source: World Bank Education at a Glance Spending two thirds of the education budget on primary education has paid off in high enrollments in grades 1-6. Cambodia now needs to allocate more funds to the growing secondary levels of the system. Cambodia
Education Efficiency: Repetition Source: World Bank EdStats, UNESCAP The low education expenditure level in Cambodia is in part reflected in the very high repetition rates. Cambodia
Education Efficiency: Repetition Cambodia Few Cambodian children seem to get through primary education without repeating grades. Grade 9 shows a slight increase and Grade 12 a huge rate of repetition probably because of students’ failure to pass matriculation exams. Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS
Education Efficiency: Staff Ratios Source: Cambodia Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport EMIS Cambodia Staff ratios are steadily declining. Non-teaching staff prefer classification as teaching staff to maintain their pedagogy allowance and work a 10-month year.
Education Efficiency: Private Tutoring Private tutoring is a common alternate occupation of teachers especially at the secondary level and in urban areas. Participation in tutoring is strongly correlated with teachers’ levels of education, with those with upper secondary education significantly more likely to tutor. In a 2006 survey, approximately 87% of lower secondary teachers reported being involved in tutoring. Collection of ‘unofficial fees’ is also a common practice in the system despite education supposedly being free to all. Informal costs cover illegal actions such as bribes to access services or gain preferential treatment, or legal actions such as procuring additional tuition. Unofficial fee collection is most widespread in urban areas as students in rural areas are too poor to pay for extra services. Despite viewing the practice as illegal, the Cambodian government acknowledges that low teacher salaries encourages them to be involved in the practice. Source: World Bank (2005) Teaching in Cambodia Cambodia
Education: Conclusion Successes: Access: High rate of primary enrollment with gender parity. Quality: Dramatically increased grade six completion rates. 100% pre- service trained primary teachers. Equity: High primary enrollment rates from rural/remote areas. Efficiency: Low teaching/non-teaching staff ratios. Challenges: Access: Secondary enrollment challenges especially for rural/remote students. Low tertiary enrollments. Quality: Low education level of primary teachers. No systematic student academic assessment process in lower grades. High primary repetition rates. Equity: Inequitable spending patterns on secondary education levels. Inequitable access to secondary and tertiary levels by poorest students. Efficiency: Low public expenditure rates on education. Wide-spread practice of unofficial fee collection by urban teachers. Cambodia