How are power and political organizations different? How are social and political order formed and maintained? How do political systems obtain popular support? Chapter Outline
Kinds Of Political Systems Uncentralized systems –Bands –Tribes Centralized systems –Chiefdoms –States
Types Of Political Organization: Membership MembershipNumber of peopleSettlement pattern Band Dozens and upMobile TribeHundreds and up Mobile or fixed: 1 or more villages ChiefdomThousands and up Fixed: 1 or more villages State Tens of thousands and up Fixed: Many villages and cities
Types Of Political Organization: Membership MembershipBasis of relationships Ethnicities and languages BandKin1 TribeKin, descent groups1 Chiefdom Kin, rank and residence 1 StateClass and residence1 or more
Types Of Political Organization: Government Membership Decision making, leadership Bureaucracy Band“Egalitarian”None Tribe Egalitarian” or Big- Man None Chiefdom Centralized, hereditary None, or 1 or 2 levels StateCentralizedMany levels
Types Of Political Organization: Government MembershipConflict resolution Hierarchy of settlement BandInformalNo TribeInformalNo ChiefdomCentralized No Paramount village or head town StateLaws, judgesCapital
Types Of Political Organization: Economy Membership Division of labor Exchanges BandNoReciprocal TribeNoReciprocal ChiefdomNo -> Yes Redistributive (“tribute”) StateYes Redistributive (“taxes”)
Types Of Political Organization: Society MembershipStratifiedSlavery BandNo TribeNo Chiefdom Yes, ranked by kin Some small-scale State Yes, by class or caste Some large-scale
Types Of Political Organization: Society Membership Luxury goods for elite Indigenous literacy BandNo TribeNo ChiefdomYesNo ->Some StateYesOften
Bands Small group of politically independent, though related, households. The least complicated form of political organization. Found among nomadic societies. Small, numbering at most a few hundred people.
Bands No need for formal political systems. Decisions are made with the participation of adult members, with an emphasis on achieving consensus. Those unable to get along with others of their group move to another group where kinship ties give them rights of entry.
Tribes Tribes consist of small, autonomous local communities, which form alliances for various purposes. Economy based on crop cultivation or herding. Population densities generally exceed 1 person per square mile. Leadership among tribes is informal.
Chiefdoms The chief is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people. The office of the chief is usually for life and often hereditary. The chief’s authority serves to unite his people in all affairs and at all times. Highly unstable as lesser chiefs try to take power from higher ranking chiefs.
State The most formal of political organizations. Political power is centralized in a government, which may use force to regulate the affairs of its citizens and its relations with other states. Since their first appearance 5,000 years ago, states have shown a tendency toward instability and transience.
Political Leadership and Gender Women have enjoyed political equality with men in a number of societies: Iroquoian tribes of New York State - men held office at the pleasure of women, who appointed them and could remove them. Igbo of Nigeria - women held positions that paralleled and balanced that of the men.
Internalized Controls Self-imposed by individuals. Rely on such deterrents as shame, fear of divine punishment, and magical retaliation. Although bands and tribes rely heavily upon them, they are generally insufficient by themselves.
Externalized Controls Mix cultural and social control. Positive sanctions reward appropriate behavior. Negative sanctions punish behavior.
Functions of Law Defines relationships among a society’s members and behavior under different circumstances. Allocates authority to employ coercion to enforce sanctions. Redefines social relations and aids its own efficient operation by ensuring it allows change.
Settling Disputes A dispute may be settled in two ways: 1.Negotiation - the parties to the dispute reach an agreement with or without the help of a third party. 2. Adjudication - An authorized third party issues a binding decision.