Types Of Political Organization: Membership MembershipNumber of peopleSettlement pattern BandDozens and upMobile TribeHundreds and up Mobile or fixed: 1 or more villages ChiefdomThousands and up Fixed: 1 or more villages State Tens of thousands and up Fixed: Many villages and cities
Types Of Political Organization: Membership MembershipBasis of relationships Ethnicities and languages BandKin1 TribeKin, descent groups1 Chiefdom Kin, rank and residence 1 StateClass and residence1 or more
Types Of Political Organization: Government Membership Decision making, leadership Bureaucracy Band“Egalitarian”None Tribe Egalitarian” or Big- Man None Chiefdom Centralized, hereditary None, or 1 or 2 levels StateCentralizedMany levels
Types Of Political Organization: Government MembershipConflict resolution Hierarchy of settlement BandInformalNo TribeInformalNo ChiefdomCentralized No Paramount village or head town StateLaws, judgesCapital
Types Of Political Organization: Economy Membership Division of labor Exchanges BandNoReciprocal TribeNoReciprocal ChiefdomNo -> Yes Redistributive (“tribute”) StateYes Redistributive (“taxes”)
Types Of Political Organization: Society MembershipStratifiedSlavery BandNo TribeNo Chiefdom Yes, ranked by kin Some small-scale State Yes, by class or caste Some large-scale
Types Of Political Organization: Society Membership Luxury goods for elite Indigenous literacy BandNo TribeNo ChiefdomYesNo ->Some StateYesOften
Bands Small group of politically independent, though related, households. The least complicated form of political organization. Found among nomadic societies. Small, numbering at most a few hundred people.
Bands No need for formal political systems. Decisions are made with the participation of adult members, with an emphasis on achieving consensus. Those unable to get along with others of their group move to another group where kinship ties give them rights of entry.
Tribes Tribes consist of small, autonomous local communities, which form alliances for various purposes. Economy based on crop cultivation or herding. Population densities generally exceed 1 person per square mile. Leadership among tribes is informal.
Tribes Shown here is a meeting of the Navajo Tribal Council, a nontraditional governing body created in response to requirements set by the U.S. government in order for the Navajo to exercise national sovereignty.
The Big Man This Big Man from New Guinea is wearing his official regalia.
Chiefdoms The chief is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people. The office of the chief is usually for life and often hereditary. The chief’s authority serves to unite his people in all affairs and at all times. Highly unstable as lesser chiefs try to take power from higher ranking chiefs.
Chiefdoms A Kpelle town chief in Liberia, West Africa, listens to a dispute in his district. Settling disputes is one of several ongoing traditional tasks that fall to paramount chiefs among Kpelle people.
State The most formal of political organizations. Political power is centralized in a government, which may use force to regulate the affairs of its citizens and its relations with other states. Since their first appearance 5,000 years ago, states have shown a tendency toward instability and transience.
A Nation without a State The Kurds, most of whom live in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey, are an example of a nation without a state.
Political Leadership and Gender Women have enjoyed political equality with men in a number of societies: Iroquoian tribes of New York State - men held office at the pleasure of women, who appointed them and could remove them. Igbo of Nigeria - women held positions that paralleled and balanced that of the men.
Gender and Politics Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf inspects members of the Liberian police after taking the presidential oath in January 2006. The first female president on the African continent, Sirleaf is a Harvard-educated economist who took the world by surprise when she won the head office in her war-torn and poverty- stricken country.
Social Control and Law Folkways – minor sanctions for not behaving Mores – Slightly more serious offenses Law – Most serious offenses.
Attributes of Law Authority – who carries out the law Universal application – similar crimes have similar punishments Legal sanction – negative ways you get people to conform
Types of Law Substantive law – who carries out the law and who carries out the punishment –Criminal –Civil Procedural Law – how law was broken and how will it be resolved
Legal Systems 2 Levels of procedural law –Self-help legal system – ad hoc system No formal court or jury Familial or mediator –Court legal system Settled in institutions and organizations, not by families Courts of mediation Courts of regularion
Song Duels Having a song duel is the traditional approach to dispute resolution among the Inuit of northern Canada.
Child Soldiers Today, there are more than 250,000 child soldiers, many as young as 12 years old. Among them are these boys training to be guerrillas in Sahel, Eritrea.