Presentation on theme: "Politics Organization & Power. 4 - Types Of Political Systems Uncentralized systems –Bands (foraging groups) –Tribes (horticulturalist & pastoralists)"— Presentation transcript:
4 - Types Of Political Systems Uncentralized systems –Bands (foraging groups) –Tribes (horticulturalist & pastoralists) Centralized systems (intensive agriculture) –Chiefdoms –States Shoshoni tepies, circa 1890. The state's (government's) position in the economy
Bands Small group of politically independent, though related, households. The least complicated form of political organization. Found among foragers and nomadic societies. Small, numbering at most a few hundred people. Foragers of the Agta people in the Phillippines Camp of Australian Aborigines: taken in 1895 in the Grafton district, New south Wales, by G.W. Wilson
Bands - Continued No need for formal political systems. Decisions are made with an emphasis on achieving consensus. Those unable to get along with others of their group move to another group where kinship ties give them rights of entry. –Flexible membership Bushmen in the Kalhari Egalitarian: no social stratification between leaders and followers. no real. – Everyone has access to the skills & materials needed to survive.
Tribes Tribes consist of small, autonomous local communities, which form alliances for various purposes. Economy based on crop cultivation or herding. –Horticulturalists –Pastoralists Leadership among tribes is informal. –General leader = “head man” or “big man” or woman. Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa Lakota (Sioux)chief and holy man, circa 1885.
The Big (Head) Man or Woman Part-time leader. Decides when to move the heards; when to plant; when to harvest; when to have feasts. Responsible for handling internal and external conflicts. Each smaller group usually has it’s own “head man” and acts autonomously for that group. Big Man from New Guinea, wearing his official regalia.
Pashtun Tribes Pashtun tribes men from Zarghun, Quetta, Pakistan - November 2004 Pashtun society consists of many tribes and clans which were rarely politically united, until the rise of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The are characterized by the practice of Pashtunwali and have been the dominant group in Afghanistan for more than 250 years. They are the world’s largest (patriarchal) lineage ethnic group with an estimated population of 42 million. There are 60 major Pashtun tribes & more than 400 sub-clans. Ahmad Shah Durrani established the Durrani Empire in 1747. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLCf-A9IvB4
Navajo Tribal Council Shown here is a meeting of the Navajo Tribal Council, a nontraditional governing body created in response to requirements set by the U.S. government in order for the Navajo to exercise national sovereignty.
Question In the band, disputes are settled informally through ___________ A.gossip. B.ridicule. C.direct negotiation. D.mediation. E.all of these choices
Answer: E In the band, disputes are settled informally through gossip, ridicule, direct negotiation and mediation.
Chiefdoms The chief is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people. The office of the chief is usually for life and often hereditary. The chief’s authority serves to unite his people in all affairs and at all times. Highly unstable as lesser chiefs try to take power from higher ranking chiefs.
Chiefdoms Usually intensive agriculturalists. Transitional between tribes & states. Office of Chief is independent of the person. Shared common lineal descent. Mbop Mabiinc maMbeky (ruled 1939-1969), King (Chief) of the Kuba, Nsheng, Belgian Congo Kuba Art from the Congo
Georgia Chiefdoms Approximately 900-1200 A.D. Agricultural chiefdoms developed in Georgia (Macon Plateau, Woodstock, Vining, etc). Approximately 100,000 people distributed in (perhaps) a dozen independent chiefdoms. Both Patralinial & Matralinial hereditary chieftains. 95% of the indigenous people were wiped out within two centuries after European contact (plagues & slavery).
State The most formal of political organizations. Political power is centralized in a government, which may use force to regulate the affairs of its citizens and its relations with other states. Since their first appearance 5,000 years ago, states have shown a tendency toward instability and transience.
Political Satire – Monty Python http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o76WQzVJ434
Politics & Control Niccolo Machiavelli - Italian diplomat & political philosopher in Florence. – Key figure in the Italian Renaissance. The Prince, Discourses and History made his name synonymous with ruthless politics, deceit & the pursuit of power by any means. “it is best to be both feared and loved; however, if one cannot be both it is better to be feared than loved.” the greatest moral good is a virtuous and stable state, and actions to protect the country are therefore justified even if they are cruel Machiavelli (center right) depicted with: (from left to right) Cesare Borgia, Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, and Don Micheletto Corella Niccolo Machiavelli 1469-1527
Settling Disputes A dispute may be settled in two ways: 1.Negotiation - the parties to the dispute reach an agreement with or without the help of a third party (mediator). 2. Adjudication - An authorized third party issues a binding decision. Having a song duel is the traditional approach to dispute resolution among the Inuit of northern Canada & Greenland. Song Duels http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ro_fAj571j8
Question In _____________, two parties present their grievances, but do not take part in the resolution of the dispute. A.deception. B.the development of a court system. C.negotiation. D.mediation. E.adjudication.
Answer: E In adjudication, two parties present their grievances, but do not take part in the resolution of the dispute.
Religion & Politics Iran and Great Britain permit a closer relationship between political and religious affairs. Shiite Muslim religious leader Ayatollah Khamenei is Iran’s supreme spiritual leader and his country’s highest political authority. In England, Queen Elizabeth is her country’s nominal head of state and head of the Anglican Church. Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the state's supreme civil ruler, or in a broader sense, a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided.