Presentation on theme: "Political Organization"— Presentation transcript:
1 Political Organization Social Order and Disorder
2 What is the purpose of government? Turn to a person sitting near you and discuss. Why do we need a government in this country? Better yet, do we need a government to function as a society?
3 Types of Political Organization Band societiesLack of a centralized authorityNearly all societies before the development of agriculture (ca. 10,000 years ago) were structured in this wayUsually small: less than 100 peopleVaries by season. When more food is available, bands come to togetherPolitical decision making? Usually informalInuit bands – there is a headman who is usually the best hunter or the most versed in rituals
4 Types of Political Organization Tribal OrganizationsKinship groups that act autonomously, but can potentially integrate into a larger unitAnthropological term: multilocal integrationNot permanent, still informal in natureUsually called into play when outside threat appearsEgalitarian (like band societies)Seen in many African societies, as well as New Guinea
6 Types of Political Organization Chiefdom OrganizationsFormal organization – usually a council or a chiefSocial hierarchy (not egalitarian) w/ chief’s family at the top of the chainCan redistribute goods and public labor on his behalf or othersContrast to Tribal leaders who usually attain their status by personal qualities, chiefs are said to have it in their “blood.”Polynesia: chiefs inherit special religious power called manaChiefs do not have the power to force people to do thingsPeople follow their will because they are respected, and/or control substantial amounts of goods and services which go towards helping the society
7 Types of Political Organization State Organization“Autonomous political unit encompassing many communities within its territory and having a centralized government with the power to collect taxes, draft men for work or war, and decree and enforce laws.”Complex, centralized political structureCentral idea: concept of legitimate force used to implement policiesStates have a monopoly on police, militia, or a standing army
8 Types of Political Organization State OrganizationCan a society be comprised of more than one state?Yes! Ancient Greek city-states, Italian city-states, Germany and Austria todayCan a state include more than one society?Yes! British ruling over…well everyone basically, Cantons in Switzerland, Present-day NigeriaOther important factorsUsually intensive agriculture, high degree of economic specialization and market economiesClass stratification (not egalitarian)
9 Types of Political Organization State OrganizationRadically alters people’s access to resources, ability to make their own decisions. So….Why accept a state society as legitimate?People must believe those in power have a legitimate right toTheories on why societies accept state governmentAncient rulers claimed “divine right” – but this is rare nowParental teachings to follow authorityNo good reason (people in a society are fooled)States must provide real and rational advantages
11 Variation in Political Organization Why do different types of political organization exist?Size of the society is a huge factor (pun intended)The larger the population, the greater number and types of political officials that existCross-cultural survey: The more intensive the agriculture, the greater the likelihood of state organizationHere’s the amazing thing: state societies emerged independently in southern Iraq, Egypt, northwest India, and Mexico around 3500 B.C.They were all relatively large societies, but explanation by size and agricultural dependence is too simplistic
13 Spread of the State System States have waged war against band, tribal, and chiefdom societies – states almost always winBritish and American colonialismRapid, world-wide changeIn 1000 B.C., anywhere from 100,000 to 1 million separate political units existed in the worldToday: Fewer than 200Two trends:Nation-state (think Yugoslavia breaking apart, civil war in Sudan)Political integration (think European Union, NAFTA)
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.