4BandsSmall group of politically independent, though related, households.The least complicated form of political organization.Found among nomadic societies.Small, numbering at most a few hundred people.
5Bands No need for formal political systems. Decisions are made with the participation of adult members, with an emphasis on achieving consensus.Those unable to get along with others of their group move to another group where kinship ties give them rights of entry.
6TribesTribes consist of small, autonomous local communities, which form alliances for various purposes.Economy based on crop cultivation or herding.Population densities generally exceed 1 person per square mile.Leadership among tribes is informal.
7Tribes The Big ManBig Man from New Guinea wearing his official regalia.Has informal authority, but “can’t tell people what to do”
8Question Bands and tribes are both centralized. associated with industrialism.dependent on age groups for political organization.uncentralized and egalitarian.hierarchical in social organization.
9Answer: DBands and tribes are both uncentralized and egalitarian.
10QuestionIn the band, disputes are settled informally through ___________gossip.ridicule.direct negotiation.mediation.all of these choices
11Answer: EIn the band, disputes are settled informally through gossip, ridicule, direct negotiation and mediation.
12QuestionThe form of social organization typical of hunter-gatherers is the _________, whereas horticulture and pastoralism are usually associated with the form of social organization called the _________.tribe/chiefdomtribe/statetribe/bandband/chiefdomband/tribe
13Answer: EThe form of social organization typical of hunter-gatherers is the band, whereas horticulture and pastoralism are usually associated with the form of social organization called the tribe.
14Chiefdoms The chief is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people. The office of the chief is usually for life and often hereditary.The chief’s authority serves to unite his people in all affairs and at all times.Highly unstable as lesser chiefs try to take power from higher ranking chiefs.
15ChiefdomsA Kpelle town chief in Liberia, West Africa, listens to a dispute in his district.Settling disputes is one of several ongoing traditional tasks that fall to paramount chiefs among Kpelle people.
16State The most formal of political organizations. Political power is centralized in a government, which may use force to regulate the affairs of its citizens and its relations with other states.Since their first appearance 5,000 years ago, states have shown a tendency toward instability and transience.
17A Nation without a State The Kurds, most of whom live in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey, are an example of a nation without a state.Nation (review): A people who share a collective identity based on a common culture, language, territorial base, and history
18Gender and PoliticsRight and Below Hatshepsut, Egypt’s first truly powerful female Pharaoh.Ruled during Egypt’s 18th dynasty (~1500BCE) Often represented herself as a male to legitimize her rule.Just recently identified her mummy, putting to rest theories that she was transgender or intersex:Above Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf inspects members of the Liberian police after taking the presidential oath in January 2006.The first female president on the African continent, Sirleaf is a Harvard-educated economist who took the world by surprise when she won the head office in her war-torn and poverty-stricken country.