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Adolescence. “Storm and Stress”  Stanley Hall’s publication  Inevitable turmoil, maladjustment, tension, rebellion, dependency conflicts and exaggerated.

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Presentation on theme: "Adolescence. “Storm and Stress”  Stanley Hall’s publication  Inevitable turmoil, maladjustment, tension, rebellion, dependency conflicts and exaggerated."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adolescence

2 “Storm and Stress”  Stanley Hall’s publication  Inevitable turmoil, maladjustment, tension, rebellion, dependency conflicts and exaggerated peer-group conformity  Adolescents once thought of a “troubled waters” to adulthood

3 Sullivan’s Interpersonal Theory  Positive peer relationships essential for healthy development  Negative peer pressure leads to unhealthy development (depression, eating disorders, drug abuse, criminal activity)  Three periods of adolescence Preadolescence: 10-14, same-sex relationships “Best Friends) Early adolescence: personal security, intimacy, and sexual identity Late adolescence: personal intimacy and relationship

4 Erikson’s Identity vs. Identity Confusion  Develop and clarify their identity  Identity – comfortable w/ self, knowing where going, recognize significant of others  Search for identity important because of rapid physical changes while confronting adult tasks and decisions  Ambiguity & lack of stable anchorage can lead to over commit to cliques or gangs, allegiance, loves, and social causes.  Can be clannish, intolerant, and cruel in exclusion of others who are different in skin, cultural, looks, abilities, talents

5 Erikson Continue  Four types of identity formation Identity diffusion ○ Few commitments to anyone or to a set of beliefs Identity foreclosure ○ Accepts’ someone else's values, and goals, without exploring alternative roles Identity moratorium ○ Experiment with/try various roles, ideologies, and commitments Identity achievement ○ Achieves inner stability that corresponds to what achieves inner stability that corresponds to what others perceive that person to be

6 “Puberty Rites” “Rights of Passage”  Initiation ceremonies that symbolize a clearer transition from childhood to adulthood Bar to bat mitzvah Drivers licenses Voting Quinceeanera Sweet 16

7 Self-Image and Adolescence  Self-image degree of Success hinges on: Academic competence Acceptance by peers Skills in athletics Physical appearance Success in holding a part-time job Romantic appeal Behavior conduct Whether or not has a close friend

8 Identity Formation in Girls  Past girls felt confident and assertive in elementary school and by junior high had poorer self image  Today more girls earning higher honors and performing better in school than boys  High self-esteem linked to our decision making  Parents treat with double standard  Physical appearance key in choosing peer group  Girls sensitive, connect, and interdependent on others  American culture destroying identity of girls because on media and female celebrities

9 Identity Formation in Boys  Hormone difference regulate way males operate  Increase impulsive behavior  Boys brain needs to renew, recharge, and reorient so have trouble in lecture style  Need relationship with fathers or mentors  Feel better about themselves by being independent, separated, and competitive

10 Generation Gap  Baby Boomers – born , extra time and did activities  Generation X – , “me” generation  Millennials – early 1980’s to 2010 Altruistic values Greater social responsibility Improving environment Strong work ethic Safer sex and conservative values Less structured life and time to themselves

11 Masculinity vs. Femininity  Masculinity in boys Physical mastery Athletic skills Sexual prowess Risk taking Courage Defend honor  Femininity in girls Physical attractiveness Behaving properly Obeying rules Delicately manipulate interpersonal relationships Control over sexual encounters

12 Peers  Cliques in JH  Group membership drops in HS  More girls stand p to peers than boys  Teen girls more independent than boys  “crowds” still in HS  Social Networking Facebook, MySpace  Develop own personal identity  Can be harmful  Posting too much personal information  Cyberbully, cyber threats

13 Adolescents and Families  Decline on parental closeness, time spent w/ parents, decision making help  Moms interact in peer relationships  Dad’s interact in school and sports  Conflicts over Behavior, negative character, home/school performance, curfew  Parental monitoring decreases delinquency, substance use, aggression  Parental help with finances, education, and career planning  Time w/ parents is shopping, TV, and chores


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