5Biological Theories of Aging Genetic TheoriesGeneErrorSomatic mutationProgrammedNongenetic TheoriesImmunologic / AutoimmuneFree RadicalWear & TearCross link or Collagen
6Psycho-Social Theories of Aging Disengagement TheoryActivity TheoryContinuity Theory
7Disengagement Theory developed by Cummings and Henry in late 1950’s. “aging is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal or disengagement, resulting in decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he/she belongs to.”
8Activity Theory developed by Robert Havighurst in the 1960’s. supports the maintenance of regular activities, roles, and social pursuits.persons who achieve optimal age are those who stay active.as roles change, the individual finds substitute activities for these roles.
9Continuity Theoryproposed by Havighurst and co-workers in reaction to the disengagement theory“basic personality, attitudes, and behaviors remain constant throughout the life span”
10“ENJOY THE BALLET, LORETTA ….AND TRY TO SELL MY TICKET.”
11??????????????????????????????What is the relevance of the biological and psychosocial theories of aging to nursing?
13Developmental Taskan activity or event that arises at a certain period in the life of an individualsuccessful achievement leads to happiness, growth, and success with later tasksfailure leads to unhappiness, disapproval by society, and difficulty with later tasks(Havighurst, 1972)
14What are some important roles that older individuals fulfill? ??????????????????????????????What are some important roles that older individuals fulfill?
15Erickson’s Developmental Stages Young Adulthood (20-30)- Intimacy vs. IsolationMiddle Adulthood (30-60)- Generativity vs. StagnationOlder Adulthood (60+)- Integrity vs. DespairArea of Resolution and Behavior:Intimacy - capacity for relationshipsvs.Isolation - impersonal relations
16Peck’s Developmental Tasks of Aging Ego Differentiation vs. Work-Role PreoccupationBody Transcendence vs. Body PreoccupationEgo Transcendence vs. Ego Preoccupation(Peck, 1968)
17Havighurst’s Developmental Tasks of Aging Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and healthAdjusting to retirement and reduced incomeEstablishing an affilitation with one’s age groupMeeting civic and social obligationsEstablishing satisfactory living arrangementsAdjusting to death of spouse
19??????????????????????????????What are factors which influences a person’s success at achieving developmental tasks?
20Nursing Interventions How can nurses assist elders accomplish developmental tasks?encourage clients to maintain and establish roles and relationshipsoffer maximum opportunities for decision makingbuild on client’s unique interests ands skillslisten to client’s concernspromote reminiscence (Eliopoulas,1995)
21Common Psychosocial Changes Assume Grandparent RoleAdjust to RetirementIncrease Volunteer ActivityMaintain or Develop New InterestsCope with Death of Spouse, or S.O.Adjust to Change in Intimacy & SexualityCope with RelocationCope with Losses
22Coping with Psychosocial Changes & Developmental Crises Support SystemCommunity ResourcesCounselingPrayer/Religion
23Spirituality and Religiosity These concepts are frequently confused.Studies have found that nurses tend to avoid addressing spiritual needs of patients.
24Spirituality is the: “totality of man’s inner resources, the ultimate concerns around which all other values are focused,the central philosophy of life that guides conduct,and the meaning-giving center of human life which influences all individual and social behavior” (Moberg, 1979)“trust & faith in a power greater than oneself”(levin & Taylor, 1997)
25Religion is: only one aspect of spirituality; an organized practice of beliefs;may or may not fill an individual’s spiritual needs eg. spiritual needs are much broader & more personal than any particular religious persuasion
26Church and Synagogue Attendance is: Lowest among those in their 30’s,Peaks in the late 50’s - early 60’s,Declines in late 60’s and early 70’s, however 65+ are the most likely to belong to church-affiliated groups
27Research Findings:Black women tend to be significantly more religious than black men and whites of both genders (Levin & Taylor, 1993).Involvement in church activities tended to increase self-esteem (Krause, 1995).Religious preference & practice were inversely related to depressive symptomatology (Kennedy, 1996).Persons who attended religious services had lower mortality (Oman & Reed, 1998).
28Nursing Interventions that enhances the spirituality of clients: Presence and acceptanceActive Listening & TouchValue clarificationDiscuss pt’s. source of strength & instill hopeConduct a spiritual assessmentCall/make referral to clergyPray, or obtain religious articles (Poncar,94; MacLennan & Tsai, 95)