2Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Condition in women where the normal balance of bacteria is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of a certain bacteria.Symptomsdischarge, odor, pain, Itching, or burning
3Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Some women don’t know they have BV- They have no SymptomsSome women who have never had sex may be affected by BV (common in pregnant women)Pregnant women may have premature or low birth-weight babies
4Complications of Bacterial Vaginosis Having BV can increase a woman’s susceptibility to HIV infection if she is exposed to HIV virus.Having BV increases the chances that an HIV infected woman can pass HIV to her partnerHaving BV has been associated with an increase in the development of an infection causing surgical procedures (hysterectomy or abortion)Having BV while pregnant may put a woman at increased risk for some complications of pregnancy such as preterm delivery.BV can increase a woman’s susceptibility to other STIs such as: Herpes Simplex Virus, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea
5Chlamydia Most common STI reported in the United States Easy to cure, however, Chlamydia can impact a woman’s ability to have children if left untreatedMost common among young people- Estimated that 1 in 15 sexually active females aged years has chlamydia.
6Chlamydia How to get Chlamydia: Having sex with someone who has the infectionVaginalOralAnalEven if the male does not ejaculate Chlamydia can still be transmitted.People who have had chlamydia and have been treated can get infected again if they have sex with an infected person.Chlamydia can also be spread from an infected woman to her baby during childbirth.Also known as the “Silent” infection because infected people have no symptoms – If symptoms do occur they may not appear until several weeks after exposureEven when it causes no symptoms, Chlamydia can damage a woman’s reproductive organs.
7Chlamydia In women: In Men: Bacteria first infects the cervix (connects to the birth canal to the uterus or womb)Discharge or burning during urinationUntreatedSpread upwards to the uterus and fallopian tubes causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)In Men:Burning sensation during urination
8Gonorrhea Caused by a bacterium Grows easily in warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract (cervix, womb, fallopian tubes, and urine canal –women and men)How to get it:Having sexVaginalAnalOralSpread from an untreated mother to her baby during childbirth
9Gonorrhea Symptoms in men: Burning sensation during urination White, yellow, or green discharge (usually appears 1 to 14 days after infection)Symptoms in women:Most women with gonorrhea do not have any symptomsIf they do- mild and can be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infectionInitial symptoms in women:Painful or burning sensation when urinatingIncreased dischargeVaginal bleeding between periodsRisk of developing serious complications from the infection, even if symptoms are not present or are mildUntreated Gonorrhea can spread to the blood or joints – this condition can be life-threatening.
10Genital Herpes Symptoms: Most individuals experience either no symptoms or have a very mild symptoms that go unnoticed or are mistaken for another skin condition. (Most infected don’t know they are infected)If they do occur:Appear as one or more blisters on or around genitals, rectum, or mouthIf blisters break they leave painful sores that may take two to four weeks to healFirst time someone has an outbreak they may also experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, body aches and swollen glands.
11Human Papillomavirus (HPV) HPV- there are more than 40 types of HPV that can infect the genital areas of males and femalescan also infect the mouth and throatHPV can cause serious health problems:Genital warts and certain cancersNo way to tell who will develop health problems from HPVIn most cases HPV goes away by itself before it causes health problems, and most people who become infected with HPV don’t know they have itPass through genital contactVaginal sexAnal sexOral sex
12Syphilis Easy to cure in early stages Signs/Symptoms: Firm, round, small, and painless sore on the genitals, anus, or mouth, or a rash on the body – especially on the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet.Transmitted from person to person by direct contact with syphilis sores.Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to their unborn children.
13Primary Stage Single sore marks first stage. Sore appears where syphilis entered the bodySore is painless and may go unnoticedSore lasts 3-6 weeks heals regardless of whether or not a person is treated.
14Secondary Stage (if not treated in primary) Starts with a rash on one or more areas of body.Can appear from the time primary sore heals to several weeks after the sore has healed.Rash does not cause itching- may appear as rough, red, or reddish brownLooks different on other parts of the bodyLarge, raised, gray, or white lesions may develop in warm, moist areas (mouth/underarm/groin area)Other symptoms: fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches, and fatigue
15Late and Latent Stages Hidden stage of syphilis Begins when primary and secondary symptoms disappear.Without treatment :Infected person can continue to have syphilis in their body even though there are not signs or symptoms
17STI’s and pregnant women STIs can be passed from a pregnant woman to the baby before, during, or after the baby’s birth.Some STDs (like syphilis) cross the placenta and infect the baby while it is in the uterus (womb).Other STDs (like gonorrhea, chlamydia, hepatitis B, and genital herpes) can be transmitted from the mother to the baby during delivery as the baby passes through the birth canal. HIV can cross the placenta during pregnancy, infect the baby during the birth process, and unlike most other STDs, can infect the baby through breastfeeding
18Pregnant women and STI’s A pregnant woman with an STI may also have early onset of labor, premature rupture of the membranes surrounding the baby in the uterus, and uterine infection after delivery.
19Harmful effects of STI’s in babies The harmful effects of STDs in babies may include:stillbirth (a baby that is born dead)low birth weight (less than five pounds)conjunctivitis (eye infection)Pneumonianeonatal sepsis (infection in the baby’s blood stream)neurologic damageBlindnessDeafnessAcute hepatitisMeningitisChronic liver diseaseCirrhosisMost of these problems can be prevented if the mother receives routine prenatal care, which includes screening tests for STDs starting early in pregnancy and repeated close to delivery, if necessary. Other problems can be treated if the infection is found at birth.
20Can STI’s be treated during pregnancy? ChlamydiaGonorrheaSyphilisTrichomoniasisBacterial Vaginosis (BV) ccan be treated and cured with antibiotics during pregnancy.There is no cure for viral STIs such as:Genital Herpes and HIV,but antiviral medication may be appropriate for pregnant women with herpes and definitely is for those with HIV.For women who have active genital herpes lesions at the time of delivery, a cesarean delivery (C-section) may be performed to protect the newborn against infection.C-section is also an option for some HIV-infected women. Women who test negative for hepatitis B may receive the hepatitis B vaccine during pregnancy.