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Vaccinations Mariam Keita, OMS III Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Vaccinations Mariam Keita, OMS III Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vaccinations Mariam Keita, OMS III Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine

2 What is a vaccination? Injection of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body against that organism Best defense we have against serious, preventable, and deadly contagious diseases

3 What do we get vaccinated for? Influenza Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis MMR Hepatitis B Varicella Meningococcal Polio

4 Influenza (“Flu”) Signs and symptoms – Cough – Fever – Chills – Runny nose – Sore throat – Muscle pain

5 Influenza (“Flu”) Air borne Vaccine is recommended for high risk groups – Pregnant women – Elderly – Health care workers – Children – Chronic illnesses (asthma, diabetes, heart disease)

6 Influenza Vaccine Injection Intranasal – Live vaccine – Easy to take – Children might prefer over getting a shot May offer better protection in children age 2-8 – Recommended for healthy individuals age 2-49

7 Tetanus Disease Signs and symptoms – Tetany * – Drooling – Excessive sweating – Fever – Difficulty swallowing – Uncontrolled urination or defecation – Hand/foot spasms

8 Tetanus Prolonged muscle contractions – Muscle spasms in the jaw (lockjaw) – Other parts of the body Tetanus Toxin produced by Clostridium tetani (bacteria) Wound contamination (cut, puncture wound) Can destroy cells of the nervous system

9 Tetanus Disease Prevented by immunization or post exposure prophylaxis Booster every 10 years Often administered with vaccines for diphtheria and pertussis (DTaP, Tdap)

10 Diphtheria Signs and Symptoms – Sore throat – Low Fever – Fatigue – Horseness – Painful swallowing – Swollen lymph nodes – Pseudomembrane on tonsils (grey) *

11 Diphtheria Upper respiratory tract illness Caused by Corynebacterium diptheriae (bacteria) Spread by direct contact or breathing in secretions from infected individual Diphtheria toxin Diagnose by isolating bacteria from throat culture The last person to reported in US was in 2012

12 Pertussis (whooping cough) Signs and symptoms – Recurrence of cough that is violent – Difficulty breathing – Runny nose – Sneeze – Fever – Fainting/vomiting after cough – Whoop on inspiration *

13 Pertussis Highly contagious respiratory disease Pertussis toxin Bordetella pertussis (bacteria) Commonly affects infants and children Can be fatal in babies less than 1 year old Adults can get pertussis when their immunity from childhood vaccine wears off over time Bacterial pneumonia Culture bacteria from nasal secretions to diagnose

14 Signs and symptoms – High fever – Koplik spots (in the mouth) * – Cough – Conjunctivitis (red eyes) – Loss of appetite – Spot like rash that covers the body Measles

15 Highly contagious infection of respiratory system by a virus Spread by direct contact via coughing and sneezing Rash begins several days after the fever starts (often itchy) Vaccine given with Mumps and Rubella vaccine Complications – Pneumonia – Otitis media (ear infection) – Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)

16 Mumps Signs/symptoms – Fever – Muscle aches – Headache – Loss of appetite – Difficulty swallowing or chewing – Swelling of salivary glands (parotid) *

17 Mumps Highly contagious viral illness Spread from one person to another via respiratory droplets Also from sharing utensils Children aged 2-12 are at highest risk Complications – Orchitis – Meningitis/Encephalitis – Pancreatitis

18 Rubella (German Measles) Caused by a virus Respiratory route Virus can cross the placenta and infect fetus (heart, brain, eye, ear complications) Congenital rubella syndrome main reason vaccine was developed Similar symptoms as flu Main symptom: rash on face that spreads to trunk and limbs Rash fades after 3 days Not as severe as measles

19 Hepatitis B Signs and symptoms – Jaundice (yellow skin/eyes) * – Nausea/Vomiting – Mild fever – Muscle aches – Dark urine – Abdominal pain

20 Hepatitis B Infection of the Liver caused by Hep B virus Vaccine: 3 dose series Can become chronic (6 months) – Liver failure – Liver cancer Most common reason for liver transplant Transmission – Mother to child – Sharing needles – Sexual contact – Accidental needle stick

21 Varicella Zoster Signs/ symptoms – Fever – Headache – Loss of appetite – Rash (blister-like) * – Tiredness

22 Varicella “chickenpox” Viral infection Air bourne (cough/sneezing) Itchy blister like rash Infection usually lasts up to 10 days Disease is generally mild in healthy children; more severe in adults Vaccine/ immune if previously infected – 2 nd dose after 5 years Can remain dormant and cause shingles in adulthood – Herpes zoster vaccine at age 60

23 Meningococcal Meningitis Signs / symptoms – Sudden high fever – Nausea/vomiting – Drowsiness – Neck stiffness * – Joint pain – Sensitive to light – Mental status change (confusion)

24 Meningococcal Meningitis Neisseria meningitis (bacteria) Inflammation of meninges Rare but serious infection Spread through respiratory/throat secretions (kissing etc.) Vaccine recommended for all 11-18 year olds – All first year college students – Can quickly spread where large groups gather


26 Polio Viral infection Non paralytic vs paralytic Spread person to person via fecal-oral route Inflammation of spinal cord grey matter Can enter CNS, destroy motor neurons – Muscle weakness – Flaccid paralysis President Franklin D Roosevelt No cure Polio Vaccine

27 Questions?

28 A 22 year old female comes to your office complaining about muscle spasms in her foot and hands. She tells you that she stepped on a rusty nail 2 weeks ago. What do you think she has? A)Polio B)Meningitis C)Tetanus D)Hepatitis B

29 Mom brings her 5 year old son to the doctor for an itchy rash. She said that he never got any vaccines. What do you think he has?

30 Which childhood infection can cause shingles in adults later down the line? A)Measles B)Influenza (the flu) C)Rubella D)Varicella

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