2Infectious Diseases You can “catch” it What does Infectious or Contagious mean?You can “catch” itCommunicable, Transferrable, SpreadableCan spread from one person to anotherCan spread from one part of the body to another
4Infectious DiseasesHow do you get an Infectious or Contagious Disease?Direct ContactWhen an uninfected person comes in contact with an infected person.Sexually transmitted diseasesPregnant woman to her unborn childIndirect ContactBreathing contaminated air in to the lungsColds, influenza, and tuberculosis are spread this way
5How Diseases are Spread Infectious DiseasesHow Diseases are SpreadPeople: Many infectious diseases are spread as a result of direct or indirect contact with an infected personAnimals: Animals and insects spread many infectious diseases. The bit of an infected dog or other animal can spread rabies and can be fatal. Malaria and dengue fever are spread this wayContaminated Objects: Pathogens are spread when an uninfected person touches objects that an infected person has used. Eating utensils, glasses, toothbrushes, shared drug needlesEnvironment: Food, water, soil, and air we breathe contain potentially harmful pathogens. Careless handling of food is the main source of food poisoning.
6Infectious Diseases Your Immune System How does your body prevent you from getting sick?Your Immune System
7Physical Barriers against Infection Skin is your body’s 1st line of defense against pathogens
8Chemical Barriers against Infection Enzymes in tears, saliva, and digestive juices destroy pathogens
9Blood Cell Barriers against Infection White Blood Cells group togetherto destroy pathogens
10Inflammatory Barriers against Infection Heat, redness, and swelling are the body’s “red alert,”indicating when pathogens break through other barriers
12Infectious Diseases Diseases of the Nervous System Encephalitis (Not so common Infectious & Contagious Diseases)EncephalitisMeningitisPolio (Poliomyelitis)
13Common Cold Viral Infection Stuffy, runny nose Sneezing Sore Throat HeadacheContracted by breathing in the virus droplets or by touching the virus and rubbing the eyes or nose and transferring the virus by hand.
14Flu (Influenza) Viral Infection Chills Fever Headache Muscle Ache Flu is spread by virus-infected droplets coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person.
15Tuberculosis Bacterial Infection Coughing Chest pain Shortness of breathFeverSweatingLoss of appetiteWeight lossSpread by airborne droplets produced by coughing or sneezing
16Strep Throat Spread by droplets coughed or breathed into the air. Bacterial InfectionSore throatFeverGeneral feeling of illnessEnlarged lymph nodes in neckSpread by droplets coughed or breathed into the air.
17Encephalitis Swelling of the brain Virus spread by mosquitoes Headache FeverHallucinationsConfusionParalysisSpeech disturbancesMemory lossGradual loss of consciousness
18MeningitisSwelling of the membranes (meninges) of the brain & spinal cordViral & Bacterial typesFeverSevere HeadacheNausea & vomitingSensitivity to lightStiff neckInfection is life threatening
19Poliomyelitis More commonly known as polio Virus of the central nervous systemHas a vaccine to preventExtensive paralysis of muscles used for breathingCan lead to death
20Mono (Mononucleosis) Viral infection “kissing disease” Common among teensChillsFeverSore throatFatigueSwollen lymph nodesSpreads through direct contact
21Measles Highly contagious viral disease Fever Rash (over entire body) Runny noseSore eyesCoughEar & Chest infectionsHas a vaccine to prevent
22Hepatitis Swelling of the liver Hepatitis A-from eating food or drinking drinks that have been contaminatedHepatitis B-spread by contaminated medical instruments and sexual contact with infected peopleHepatitis C-spread through infected bloodViral InfectionJaundiceFeverNauseaLoss of appetiteAbdominal painAching muscle
23Preventing Infectious Diseases Immunity: The body’s defenses against disease Active Immunity: Your body remembers the pathogens it meets and attacks them when Passive Immunity: Temporary immunity. The immunity that babies get from their mothers and lasts a few months. Immunization: A way to help the body have immunity against pathogens
24VaccinesLive virus vaccines: Made from weakened viruses. Measles, mumps, rubella, and oral polio vaccines all contain live virus.Killed virus vaccines: Contain viruses that have been killed. The vaccine causes the body to produce antibodies. Cholera, typhoid fever, rabies, and polio vaccines contain killed viruses.Toxoids: Treated toxins stimulate the production of antibodies and establish active immunity against diseases.
25Don’t get Sick! Use Common Sense Infectious DiseasesDon’t get Sick! Use Common SenseStay Healthy: good nutrition, exercise, adequate sleep, good healthcareBathe Daily: keep skin, hair, and fingernails cleanDon’t Share Food/Drinks: sharing straws, utensils, and drinking out of the same glass as others spreads germsCarefully Handle Food: prevents food poisoningWash Your Hands: after using the bathroom, changing diapers, preparing, serving, or eating food.Stay Away from People: when YOU are sick, when THEY are sick
26Journal Entry #8.1Pick three-(3) infectious diseases to investigate, answer the following questions concerning each in your health journal:Write a paragraph about the disease. Explain what happens when a person contracts the disease; is the disease a result of direct or indirect contactIs the disease communicable, transferrable or spreadable? Explain your answer (it may be all three but you will need to explain how it is all three)What causes the disease? (Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, Rickettsia, or Protozoa?What is the best way to prevent the disease?What would be the best method to prevent the disease?(You must answer all of these questions for each of the three-(3) diseases that you choose!)
27ReferencesMerki, M.B. & Merki, D. (1999). Glencoe health a guide to wellness. New York, New York. Glencoe McGraw- Hill Publishing