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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 OC-SBT/ SBI/ SGS 031-U01-05 Introduction Programmes and Courses  SEP – SBT031 – Unit 01  SEP – SBI031 – Unit 01  SEP – SGS031 – Unit 01

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.3 Credits  Academic Inputs by Mrs. Rasika Bhore  M.sc (Microbiology)

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to: Discuss polysaccharides & its types. Describe components of starch & its uses. Describe properties of starch components. Discuss hyaluronic acid with structure.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Introduction  Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates.  They are very large, often branched, macromolecules. They tend to be amorphous, insoluble in water, and have no sweet taste.  Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.  Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide called capsule. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Polysaccharides  Polysaccharides are relatively complex carbohydrates. They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic linkages.  They are therefore very large, often branched, macromolecules, also called as Glycans.  They tend to be amorphous, insoluble in water, and have no sweet taste.  Polysaccharides have a general formula of Cn(H2O)n-1 where n is usually a large number between 200 and © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… 2 Types of Polysaccharides  Homopolysaccharides:-When all the constituent monosaccharide are of the same type they are termed homopolysaccharides. e.g. Starch, Glycogen, Inulin (Digestible polysaccharides) Cellulose, Pectin, Chitin (Indigestible Polysaccharides)  Heteropolysaccharides:- when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are termed heteropolysaccharides. e.g. Agar, Gum & Pectin, GAG’s (Glycosaminoglycans/Mucopolysaccharides), Glycoprotein © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Starch  Starch is found in potatoes and in grains such as corn and wheat. Starch is made up of glucose repeating units.  In body, enzymes break down starch into glucose, for energy.  Starch has a few other uses other than food.  It is used in pressing clothes to keep them from wrinkling.  It is also used to make a foam packing. Starch is biodegradable, so starch foam packing is an environmentally friendly. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Constituents of Starch  Starch consists of two types of molecules, amylose (normally 20-30%) and amylopectin (normally 70-80%).  Both consist of polymers of α-D-glucose units.  In amylose these are linked -(1 4)-, with the ring oxygen atoms all on the same side.  whereas in amylopectin about one residue in every twenty or so is also linked -(1 6)- forming branch-points.  Amylose is a straight chain polymer, amylopectin is highly branched.  These differences account for the fact that amylopectin can form stable starch gels which are able to retain water while amylose is unable to do so.  Therefore, amylopectin is often used by manufacturers to produce different kinds of thick sauces & gravies. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Amylose © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Amylopectin © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hyaluronic Acid  Hyaluronic acid is also called Hyaluronan or Hyaluronate.  It is a non-sulfated glucosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neutral tissues.  It is one of the chief components of the extracellular matrix, contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration.  This matrix is made of a framework of various protein structures (collagen and proteoglycans).  The average 70 kg man has roughly 15 grams of hyaluronan in his body.  Hyaluronan was described as a "goo" molecule, a ubiquitous carbohydrate polymer that is part of the extracellular matrix.  Hyaluronan is a major component of the synovial fluid and was found to increase the viscosity of the fluid.  It is one of the fluid's main lubricating components. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Structure of Hyaluronan  Hyaluronan is a polymer of disaccharides themselves composed of: D- glucouronic acid and D-N-acetylglucosamine, linked together via alternating β-1,4 and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds. (The repeating disaccharide units of hyaluronic acid) © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… About Hyaluronan………  Hyaluronan can be 25,000 disaccharide repeats in length.  Polymers of hyaluronan can range in size from 5,000 to 20,000,000 Da in vivo.  The average molecular weight in human synovial fluid is 3−4 million Da and hyaluronan purified from human umbilical cord is 3,140,000 Da.  Hyaluronan is energetically stable in part because of the stereochemistry of its component disaccharides. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.15

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What we learn………..  Polysaccharides are of 2 types depending on the types of sugars, i.e. homopolysaccharides & heteropolysaccharides.  Starch is breakdown in body for energy purpose.  It composed of amylopectin & amylose.  Hyaluronic acid acts as a lubricant & is present in extracellular matrix. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17 Critical Thinking Questions Why capsulated bacteria escapes from host defense mechanism? Or What is the role of polysaccharides in host- pathogen relationship?

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hints To Critical Thinking Question  Polysaccharides present on surface of bacterial cell.  Antigenic proteins. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.18

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.19 Study Tips  Book Title: Lehninger, principles of biochemistry Author: Michael Cox.

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.20 Study Tips Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Carbohydrates.

21 End of the Presentation Thank You !


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