# Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – 422222, India

OC-SBT/SBI/SGS032-U01-04 Introduction Programmes and Courses  SEP – SBT032 – Unit 01  SEP – SBI032 – Unit 01  SEP – SGS032 – Unit 01

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of 40-60 minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about 40-60 minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to: Discuss taxonomic system for classification of all living beings. Describe two, three & five kingdom systems. Describe Whittaker’s five kingdom concept & three domain system.

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Introduction  There are millions of living organisms exist on Earth.  Therefore it is essential to arrange them in a sequential order, according to their similar characters.  Taxonomy is the branch of biology in which organisms are classified into different groups.  Different taxonomists have arranged them into 2, 3, 5, & 6 kingdoms, at last the Whittaker’s five kingdom concept & three domain concept are widely used. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Taxonomy  Taxonomy is the field of biology which deals with the nomenclature, identification, and classification of organisms.  There are over one million known species on Earth and probably several million more not yet identified.  Taxonomists are responsible for identifying, naming, and classifying all these different species.  Systematics is a discipline of biology that examines the natural variation and relationships of organisms, and which includes the field of taxonomy.  Systematics also deals with the different groups of organisms, reflecting evolutionary relationships. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Two & Three Kingdom Concept  Carolus Linnaeus distinguished two kingdoms of living things: Animalia for animals and Vegetabilia for plants  He divided each kingdom into classes, later grouped into phyla for animals and divisions for plants.  When single-celled organisms were first discovered, they were split between the two kingdoms: Mobile forms in the animal phylum Protozoa, and Colored algae and bacteria in the plant division Thallophyta or Protophyta.  However, a number of forms were hard to place, in different kingdoms for example, the mobile alga Euglena and the amoeba-like slime moulds.  As a result, Ernst Haeckel suggested creating a third kingdom Protista for them. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Four Kingdoms  It is discovered that bacteria have a radically different cell structure from other organisms.  The bacterial cell has one or two membranes that lie at or near its surface, whereas other organisms have a more complex structure with a nucleus and other organelles divided by intracellular membranes.  Edouard Chatton propose a division of life into organisms with a nucleus in Eukaryota and organisms without nucleus Prokaryota.  A more typical system was that of Herbert Copeland, who gave the prokaryotes a separate kingdom, Monera or Bacteria.  Copeland's four-kingdom system placed all eukaryotes other than animals and plants in the kingdom Protista. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Whittaker’s Five Kingdom System  Robert Whittaker recognized an additional kingdom for the Fungi.  The resulting five-kingdom system, proposed in 1968, has become a popular standard and forms the basis for newer multi-kingdom systems.  It is based mainly on differences in nutrition: Plantae were mostly multicellular autotrophs, Animalia multicellular heterotrophs, and Fungi multicellular saprotrophs.  The remaining two kingdoms, Protista and Monera, included unicellular and simple cellular colonies. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Three Domain System  In 1977, Woese and Wolfe, using 16S ribosomal RNA sequences,overturned one of the major dogmas of biology.  Until then, all life on Earth belonged to one of two primary lineages, the eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi and certain unicellular organisms such as paramecia) and the prokaryotes (all remaining microscopic organisms).  The Archaea microorganisms that live in extreme environments without oxygen in conditions.  Woese's molecular studies of RNA sequences led to the realization that the Achaea were distinct from the two accepted classifications.  Now three primary divisions of life are recognized: Eukaryotes, Achaea and Bacteria. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What we Learn……………  Carolus Linnaeus distinguished two kingdoms of living things: Animalia for animals and Vegetabilia for plants.  Edouard Chatton propose a division of life into organisms with a nucleus in Eukaryota and organisms without nucleus Prokaryota.  A more typical system was that of Herbert Copeland, who gave the prokaryotes a separate kingdom, Monera or Bacteria.  Copeland's four-kingdom system placed all eukaryotes other than animals and plants in the kingdom Protista.  Whittaker’s five kingdom concept became more popular. He added group Fungi.  Three domain concept also represent well classification. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14 Critical Thinking Questions How Archaeabacteria is different from Eubacteria? Why they can survive in extreme environment?

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Tips For Critical Thinking Questions  They are extremophiles. Their molecular structure is quite different.

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16 Study Tips  Book Title: Microbiology Author: Robert Bauman

School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17 Study Tips www.en.wikipedia.org Kingdom (biology) www.science.jrank.org Taxonomy- definition of species, Nomenclature & Identification www.fossilmall.com The domains & kingdoms of life

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