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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 OC-SBT/ SBI/ SGS 031-U01-02 Introduction Programmes and Courses  SEP – SBT031 – Unit 01  SEP – SBI031 – Unit 01  SEP – SGS031 – Unit 01

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.3 Credits  Academic Inputs by Mrs. Rasika Bhore  M.sc ( Microbiology)

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to: Discuss monosaccharides with their classification. Describe chirality of monosaccharides. Describe all three possible structures of glucose molecule. Discuss important properties of monosaccharides.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Monosaccharides  Monosaccharides are the simple carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates.  The general chemical formula of an unmodified monosaccharide is (C·H 2 O) n, where ‘n’ is any number, three or greater.  Three common sugars share the same molecular formula: C 6 H 12 O 6. Because of their six carbon atoms, each is a hexose. They are: Glucose, "blood sugar", the immediate source of energy for cellular respiration. Galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), and Fructose, a sugar found in honey. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Classification of Monosaccharides  Monosaccharides are classified according to three different characteristics: 1.The placement of its carbonyl group. 2.The number of carbon atoms it contains, and 3.Its chirality. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… 1. Based on Carbonyl Group  If the carbonyl group is an aldehyde, the monosaccharide is an aldose; if the carbonyl group is a ketone, the monosaccharide is a ketose. Aldose Ketose © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… 2.Based on No. of Carbon Atoms in the Chain  The smallest possible monosaccharide, those with three carbon atoms, are called trioses.  Those with four are called tetroses, five are called pentoses, six are hexoses, and so on.  These two systems of classification are often combined, For example, Glucose is an aldohexose (a six-carbon aldehyde), Ribose is an aldopentose (a five-carbon aldehyde), and Fructose is a ketohexose (a six-carbon ketone). © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Examples of Trioses and Tetroses Trioses D-Glyceraldehyde Terose D-erythrose © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Examples of Pentoses and Hexoses Pentose D-ribose Hexose D-mannose © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Chirality  Carbon atom with four different groups attached is called Chiral or asymmetric carbon. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Glucose  Physiologically and biomedically glucose is most important monosaccharide.  Glucose is also called blood sugar as it circulates in the blood. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Structure of glucose can be represented in 3 ways: 1. Straight Chain / Fischer Projection © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… 2. Boat form and Chair form The chair form is thermodynamically more stable then the boat form. In solution the chair form predominates. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.15

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… 3. Cyclic Formula / Haworth's Projection  The aldehyde or ketone group of a straight-chain monosaccharide will react reversibly with a hydroxyl group on a different carbon atom to form a hemiacetal or hemiketal, forming a heterocyclic ring with an oxygen bridge between two carbon atoms. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Ring structure  Rings with five and six atoms are called furanose and pyranose forms, respectively, and exist in equilibrium with the straight- chain form. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Examples…………. GlucopyranoseFructofuranose © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.18

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Some Important Monosaccharides  Acting as Reducing Sugars: Aldehyde sugars are readily oxidized & will react with Benedict’s Reagent. Aldehydes reduce the complexed copper(II) ion to copper(I). This provides a good test for presence of glucose in urine. Red Precipitate is formed. Other are Molish test,Bial’s test,Tollens test. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.19

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Osazone Formation  The osazone reaction was developed and used by Emil Fischer to identify aldose sugars differing in configuration only at the alpha-carbon.  Application of the osazone reaction to D-glucose and D- mannose demonstrates that these compounds differ in configuration only at C-2. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.20

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What we learn………  Monosaccharides are simple sugars.  They are classified on the basis of carbonyl group, number of carbons & chirality.  Glucose can be represented in 3 ways: Fischer’s projection, Haworth's projection & boat/chair form.  Some monosaccharides plays important role in clinical biochemistry. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.21

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.22 Critical Thinking Questions 1. If Benedict's test is positive & the sugar found is glucose, then what disorder the patient is suffering from?

23 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Tips For Critical Thinking Questions  Disease in which sugar level increases due to hormonal imbalance.

24 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.24 Study Tips  Book 1 Title: Biochemistry Author: Dr. Mrs. Pankaja Naik You can also perform the Benedict's test, tollen’s test etc. in laboratory.  Book 2 Title: Biochemistry Author: S. Agrawal

25 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.25 Study Tips Microsoft Encarta Encyclopediata Carbohydrates

26 End of the Presentation Thank You !


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