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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 OC-SBT/ SBI/ SGS034-CP1-05 Introduction Programmes and Courses  SEP – SBT034 – Unit 01  SEP – SBI034 – Unit 01  SEP – SGS034 – Unit 01

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Credits  Academic Inputs by Arun Punaji More. M.Sc. (Microbiology) ‏ Experience: 11 Years

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to: Define secondary metabolites. State roles of secondary metabolites. State uses of secondary metabolites.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6 Introduction  Many times metabolic pathways generate some metabolites which are not used by the organism in their cell development, growth and reproduction; such metabolites are termed as secondary metabolites.  Secondary metabolites produces by micro- organisms have got useful pharmacological applications.  So lets understand which are the useful secondary metabolites.

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7 Secondary Metabolites-1  Secondary metabolites are as follows. Antibiotics such as Penicillin G. Streptomycin. Chlortetracyclin. Erytromycin A. Morphine. Lysergic acid. Mycotoxins. Alkaloid. Aflatoxins.

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8 Secondary Metabolites-2  Secondary metabolites are produced in stationary phase of growth in micro organisms.  Usually secondary metabolites are produced in growth limiting carbon source.  For example penicillin and cephalosporin production is repressed by glucose.

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9 Secondary Metabolites-3  The highest production of these antibiotics occur at the lowest glucose concentration.  In micro organisms the synthesis of secondary metabolites is controlled by catabolic repression, induction and feed back system.  The synthesis of secondary metabolites is common among filamentous bacteria, fungi and sporulating bacteria.

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10 Secondary Metabolites-4  Among these micro organisms they are produced in very minute quantity.  Members of Enterobacteriaceae family do not produce secondary metabolites.  More than 70% of antibiotics are produced by actinomycetes.

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11 Secondary Metabolites-5  Secondary metabolites can be classified according the precursors from which they are derived as follow: Acetate derived secondary metabolites:  Mycotoxin such as aflatoxin and ochratoxin.  Antibiotic such as griseofulvin.  Plant growth hormone such as gibberelic acid.

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12 Secondary Metabolites-6  Amino acid derived secondary metabolites:- Cyclic oligopeptides:  Cyclosporin is immunosuppresant.  Amanitins, a deadly toxin from amanitin spp. Β -lactam antibiotics:  Penicillin  Cephalosporin. Indole alkaloid:  Argot alkaloids  psilocybin

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13 Secondary Metabolites-7  Phenolic type secondary metabolites:- Salicylic acid ( aspirin) ‏  Widely used as pain killer.

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14 Uses of Secondary Metabolites-1  Antibiotics: Used as antimicrobial agents to cure diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria.  Secondary metabolites such as cyclosporin are used as immunosuppresant and immunomodulators.  Some secondary metabolites are used as anti diabetes agents ( as carbohydrates metabolism modulators).

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.15 Uses of Secondary Metabolites-2  Some secondary metabolites are used as lipid metabolism modulators as anti- hyperlipidemia.  Some secondary metabolites are used as neuromodulators.  Some secondary metabolites produced by fungi has got anti cancer properties.  Some secondary metabolites has got anti viral preoperties.

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16 What We Learn…..  Secondary metabolites produces by micro-organisms have got useful pharmacological applications.  Secondary metabolites are Antibiotics such as Penicillin G., Streptomycin, Chlortetracyclin, Erytromycin A., Morphine, Lysergic acid, Mycotoxins, Alkaloid, Aflatoxins  They are produced in stationary phase of growth in micro organisms.  More than 70% of antibiotics are produced by actinomycetes.  Some secondary metabolites are used as anti diabetes agents, anti-hyperlipidemia, neuromodulators.  Some secondary metabolites has got anti cancer and anti viral properties.

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17 Critical Thinking Question  Why harvesting of secondary metabolites is costlier than harvesting primary metabolites?

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.18 Tips for Critical Thinking Question  Concentration of secondary metabolites in culture broth.  Growth phase of culture producing secondary metabolites.

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips  Book Title: Fundamentals of Biochemistry Title: Fundamentals of Biochemistry Author:Dr. J. L Jain Author: Dr. J. L Jain Publication: Publication: W S. Chand and Co., New Delhi. Book Title: Principles of Biochemistry Author:Dr. H Robert Horton Author: Dr. H Robert Horton Publication: Publication: W S. Chand and Co., New Delhi.

20 End of the Presentation Thank You !


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