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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 OC-SBT/ SBI/ SGS034-CP1-03 Introduction Programmes and Courses  SEP – SBT034 – Unit 01  SEP – SBI034 – Unit 01  SEP – SGS034 – Unit 01

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.3 Credits  Academic Inputs by Arun Punaji More. M.Sc. (Microbiology) ‏ Experience: 11 Years

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to: Define anabolic processes. Discuss the requirements for anabolic processes. Enlist different anabolic reactions and anabolic pathways.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6 Introduction  Metabolism is defined as total sum of all the enzymatic reactions involved in biosynthesis and generation of energy required for these biosynthesis processes.  The reactions of metabolisms involved in biosynthesis are called as anabolic reactions and total sum all the enzymatic anabolic reactions are called as anabolism.

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7 Anabolism-1  Anabolic reactions are also known as assimilation reactions.  Anabolic reactions utilize metabolic intermediates and energy generated from catabolic reactions to synthesize the cells components.  Anabolic reactions require input of energy in the forms of ATP molecules or reduced co enzymes, NADH and NADPH.

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8 Anabolism-2  In mammalian cells the energy required for the anabolic reactions in forms mentioned above are provided by five metabolic pathways( or catabolic pathways). These are as below: glycolytic pathway citric acid cycle β oxidation of fatty acids oxidative phosphorylation

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9 Anabolism-3  The starting materials for anabolic pathways are called as precursors which are abundantly made available by catabolic pathways.  Sugar, amino acids, fatty acids and nitrogenous bases are precursors utilized in anabolic reactions.

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10 Anabolism-4  Acetyl CoA generated by carbohydrates and fatty acids oxidations is precursor for the synthesis of cholesterol.  For the biosynthesis of heme, glycine, succinyl CoA and iron are precursor molecules.

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11 Anabolism-5  Various anabolic pathways thus produce various cell components by utilizing these precursors molecules and energy in forms of ATP and NADH and NADPH molecules.  ATP releases free energy required for various biosynthesis reactions in cells.  The free energy released by ATP molecule is 12 Kcal/mole upon its hydrolysis.  ATP + H 2 O → ADP + Pi + free energy 12Kcal/mole.

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12 Types of Reactions in Anabolism  Oxidation-reduction reactions.  Ligation reactions.  Isomerization reactions.  Group transfer reactions.  Hydrolytic reactions.  Addition or removal of functional group transfer reactions.

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Anabolic Biochemical Pathways  Photosynthesis pathway  Gluconeogenesis  Pathways involved in synthesis of amino acids  Pathways involved in biosynthesis of fatty acids.

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Photosynthesis Pathway  Photosynthesis pathway produce the basic building block i.e. Glucose required for the synthesis of almost all constituents of the animal cells.  In photosynthesis light energy is converted into chemical energy in forms of ATP and NADPH which are used to fixed atmospheric CO 2 to produce glucose in the Calvin cycle.

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Gluconeogenesis  Biosynthesis of glucose in mammals is called as gluconeogensis.  In mammals glucose is synthesized from the precursors such as pyruvate, lactate and alanine.  Synthesis of one molecule of glucose requires two molecules of pyruvate, four molecules of ATP and two molecules of GTP.  In mammal, glucose is synthesized in liver and kidney from lactate and alanine.

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What We Learn…..  Concept of anabolism  Anabolic reactions are also known as assimilation reactions.  Free energy released by ATP molecule is 12 Kcal/mole upon its hydrolysis.  In photosynthesis light energy is converted into chemical energy in forms of ATP and NADPH  Biosynthesis of glucose in mammals is called as gluconeogensis.

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Critical Thinking Question  Why the anabolic biochemical reactions are dependent on catabolic biochemical reactions in mammals?

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Tips for Critical Thinking Question  ATP  NAPDP  GTP

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips  Book Title: Fundamentals of Biochemistry Title: Fundamentals of Biochemistry Author:Dr. J. L Jain Author: Dr. J. L Jain Publication: Publication: W S. Chand and Co., New Delhi. Book Title: Principles of Biochemistry Author:Dr. H Robert Horton Author: Dr. H Robert Horton Publication: Publication: W S. Chand and Co., New Delhi.

20 End of the Presentation Thank You !


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