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 Health and Disease in Calves and Heifers. Overview  Common Disease Problems  Neonatal Calf Diarrhea (Scours)  Bovine Respiratory Disease (Pneumonia)

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Presentation on theme: " Health and Disease in Calves and Heifers. Overview  Common Disease Problems  Neonatal Calf Diarrhea (Scours)  Bovine Respiratory Disease (Pneumonia)"— Presentation transcript:

1  Health and Disease in Calves and Heifers

2 Overview  Common Disease Problems  Neonatal Calf Diarrhea (Scours)  Bovine Respiratory Disease (Pneumonia)  Other Common Diseases (Navel ill, Arthritis, … )  Dehorning  Vaccination Programs  Impacts of Disease on Future Performance  Take Home Messages

3 Common Calf Diseases  Scours (Diarrhea)  Pneumonia (BRD)  Septicemia  Joint ill (Arthritis)  Navel ill (Omphalophlebitis)  Meningitis  Bloat  Deficiencies  Malformations

4 Studies on the Incidence of Calf Disease Waltner- Toews Ontario 1986 Curtis New York 1988 Sivula Minnesota 1995 Virtala New York 1996 Windeyer Ontario 2010 Overall Averages Diarrhea BRD Other n/a TOTAL

5 Scours (Neonatal Calf Diarrhea)  Case Definition?  Age groups usually affected?  How to identify severity?

6 Case Definition – Calf Diarrhea  Neonatal Calf Diarrhea (scours)  Manure of looser consistency than normal, that persists for 2 or more days  Decreased appetite, dullness, fever and dehydration

7 Assessing the Severity of Diarrhea

8 Scale 0 – 3  0 = normal  1 = semi-formed, pasty  2 = loose  3 = watery From Sheila McGuirk’s Calf Health Scoring Chart health_scoring_chart.pdf Fecal Scoring System

9 Assessing the Severity of Dehydration

10 Normal Mild to Moderate Dehydration – Needs Oral Electrolytes Severe Dehydration – Needs IV Fluids

11  E. coli  0-3 days of age  Rotavirus  2-3 weeks of age  Coronavirus  2-3 weeks of age  Salmonella  1–5 weeks of age  Cryptosporidium parvum  2-4 Weeks of age Scours – Common Pathogens C. parvum Rotavirus Coronavirus E. coli Salmonella

12  Main cause of diarrhea in young calves (2-4 weeks)  High morbidity (dehydration, decreased weight gain)  Low mortality  Self-limiting diarrhea  Oocysts very resistant  No effective, specific treatment  Prevention can be achieved with a high plane of nutrition  Halocur oral preparation can be used for prevention Cryptosporidium parvum in calves

13  Electrolytes  IV vs oral rehydration  What about feeding milk?  Stop feeding milk??  Separate feedings of electrolytes and milk??  Antibiotics – for E. coli diarrhea in very young calves  Metacam for abdominal pain Scours - Treatment

14  Vaccine for pregnant cows  Provide adequate amount of good quality, clean colostrum  Decrease contact between calves  Cleaning and disinfection of calf housing Scours – Prevention/Proactive Approach

15  Treatment costs  Some death loss:  12.8% ( < 1 week old)  5.1% ( > 1 week old)  Decreased weight gain  Increased risk of getting pneumonia/other illnesses Economic Impact of Calf Scours

16 Pneumonia – Respiratory Disease  Definition:  Age groups usually affected?  How to identify sick calves?  Symptoms  Behaviour

17 Case Definition - Pneumonia  Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD)  Increased respiratory rate, effort and sound  Fever  Dullness or depression  Decreased appetite  Rough hair coat  Nasal and/or ocular discharge  Coughing

18 Calf Health Scoring System Nasal Score NormalSmall amount cloudy discharge, one nostril Both nostrils, cloudy or excessive clear discharge Both nostrils, cloudy, excessive, thick discharge 0123 Assessing the Nasal Discharge

19  Pneumonia is a multifactorial disease  Environment, immunity of calf, pathogens  Common pathogens include:  Mycoplasma  Pasteurella  Mannheimia  IBR  BVD  BRSV  PI3 Pneumonia – Causes

20 Environmental Contributors  Season  Crowding  Mixing  Poor Ventilation  Contact with older animals

21  Careful Observation and Early Treatment  Systemic Antibiotic Treatment  Several effective products  Resflor, Excede, Ceftiofur, Baytril, Draxxin  Appropriate housing and nursing care  Consider metaphylactic group treatment  Limited evidence for oral medication Pneumonia - Treatment

22 Potential Solutions for BRD  Environment  Management  Calving  Colostrum  Hygiene  Housing  Nutrition  Disease monitoring  Genetics  Vaccination

23 Costs of Respiratory Disease  Medication, labour, veterinary services  Premature culling  Decreased growth  Delayed age at first calving  Increased calving difficulties  Lifetime profitability  WELFARE CONCERNS

24 Questions about Vaccination Programs  Vaccination to pregnant cows – diarrhea ??  Vaccines for respiratory disease  Inforce3, Bovishield, many other products ….  When to vaccinate?  How many times?  Benefits ??

25 Window of Susceptibility

26 1 Year 15 Months Six Months Weaning 4 Weeks 4 Weeks 2Weeks 2Weeks 7 Mo Gest First Calving 4 Months Fresh Preg Check Birth way MLV booster at 6 and 7 months 10-way MLV Pre- breeding Scour Prevention Vaccine and E.coli (J-5) At entry to dry pen and booster 3 weeks before calving. 10-way MLV booster 5-way MLV (BRD) At 6 weeks Calf and Herd Vaccination Program Inforce 3 IN

27 Other Calf Diseases  Scours (Diarrhea)  Pneumonia (BRD)  Septicemia  Joint ill (Arthritis)  Navel ill (Omphalophlebitis)  Meningitis  Bloat  Deficiencies  Malformations

28 Questions on Dehorning Dairy Calves  When/what age?  Methods of dehorning –  Caustic paste  Burning horn buds  Most effective method?  Should pain relief be provided?  Analgesic, anaesthetics, pain relief

29 Did this calf have a Lidocaine Block ???? Pain at Dehorning

30 Dehorning Methods and Results Caustic PasteCaustic Stick Portasol

31 Recommendations for Dehorning  Canadian code of practice for dairy cattle  recommends local anesthetic for dehorning  Dehorn calves as young as possible  Use NSAID’s (Metacam) if dehorning older than 4 week s

32 Disease Control for Replacement Heifers:  PARASITE CONTROL  MASTITIS CONTROL  LAMENESS  PINK-EYE

33 Take Home Message  Calf Diarrhea is common and can be managed for minimal long-term impact  It is critical to prevent calf respiratory disease to avoid profound long-term impacts  Vaccination programs can be very effective  Housing and management is important

34 Questions !!!


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