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Calf Mortality in Cow Herds Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Professor and Extension Program Leader Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M System College.

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Presentation on theme: "Calf Mortality in Cow Herds Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Professor and Extension Program Leader Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M System College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Calf Mortality in Cow Herds Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Professor and Extension Program Leader Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M System College Station, TX

2 Calf Scours

3 Causative Disease AgentsCalf Ages Bacteria E. coli<5 da C. perfringens B, C5-30 da C. perfringens D>30 da Salmonella>15 da Viruses Rotavirus5-15 da Coronavirus5-15 da BVD>30 da

4 Protozoa Cryptosporidia5-30 da Coccidia>15 da

5 Calf AgesDisease Agents <5 daE. coli 5-15 daRotavirus Coronavirus C. perfringens B, C Cryptosporidia

6 15-30 daC. perfringens B, C Cryptosporidia Coccidia Salmonella >30 daCoccidia Salmonella C. perfringens D BVD

7 Disease Agent Sources Carrier Cows, Heifers Manure – Vulva, ground (teats, haircoat, grass, hay) Diseased Calves Scours – Ground (haircoat, grass, hay)

8 Calf Pathology/Signs Intestinal Mucosa Damage Irritation, necrosis, toxins Diarrhea, Dehydration Malabsorption Hypersecretion Colon fermentation, fluid retention

9 Electrolyte Imbalance Acidosis – bicarbonate loss Body Weakness Reduced Nursing Possible Septicemia

10 Calf Septicemia

11 Causative Disease Agents E. coli Lepto

12 Calf Pneumonia

13 Causative Disease Agents Bacteria Pasteurella H. somnus Viruses IBR PI 3 BRSV BVD

14 Stress Weather Weaning

15 Disease Incidence Factors Carrier Cows, Heifers, Calves - Disease agents Contaminated Environment - Disease agents Stressed Cows, Heifers - Suppressed immunity Disease agent shedding Reduced colostrum quantity Reduced colostrum globulins (quality)

16 Thin Cows, Heifers – Low Energy Diet Reduced colostrum quantity Reduced colostrum globulins (quality) Heifers Colostrum – Lower quantity, quality Calves Late Colostrum Intake No local, systemic immunity >6 hrs, >24 hrs after birth

17 Calves, Low Colostrum Intake Weak local, systemic immunity < 10% body weight – First 24 hrs Weak local immunity <10% body weight – Second day <10% body weight – Third day Stressed Calves Dystocia, cold stress Colostrum intake – Low, late Heat stress Globulin absorption - Reduced

18 Disease Management Practices Sanitary Measures Maternity pasture 7 da pre-calving to 1 da post-calving 15 acres per 75 females Rotate pastures anually

19 Nursery pasture 3 wks 20 acres per 75 pairs Rotate pastures annually Nursing pasture 3 wks post-calving to weaning Prevent overcrowdedness

20 Treatment pasture/pen Isolate diseased calves 1 wk minimum Haying, Supplement Feeding Facilities Rotate locations Manure removal

21 Shelter Facilities Manure removal Prevent Stress in Pregnant Cows, Heifers Provide shelter, wind breaks Energy diet (grain) – last trimester Assure calf nursing Within 6 hours of birth

22 Identify Reasons for Late/Low Colostrum Intake/Absorption Abandoned calf Calf can’t find teat Big teats Weak calf Calf kicked off Calf not mothered Udder not distended Caesarean cow/heifer

23 Bottle Feed Non-nursing Calf Within 6 hrs of Birth Colostrum quantity – 5% body weight Next 18 – 24 hrs Colostrum quantity – 5% body weight Days 2 and 3 Colostrum quantity – 10% body weight

24 Disease Diagnostic Procedures Laboratory Tests of Fresh Scour Specimen Bacteria culture/antibiotic sensitivity Virus isolation Protozoa demonstration

25 Disease Vaccination Practices Pre-calving Vaccination of Pregnant Cows, Heifers Procedures Intramuscularly, subcutaneously 2 doses, 2-3 and 6-8 wks before calving 1 dose annually

26 Products E. coli K-99 Bacterin Rotavirus/Coronavirus Vaccine (Killed, Modified live) C. perfringens C,D (B) Bacterin (7-way Blackleg) Lepto (5–way) IBR/PI 3 /BRSV/BVD Pasteurella H. somnus

27 Vaccination of Calves at Calving Procedures Orally 1 dose at birth Products E. coli K-99 Monoclonal Antibody Rotavirus/Coronavirus Vaccine (Modified live)

28 Disease Treatment Practices Dehydrated Calves Procedures Orally, intravenously, intramuscularly Products Oral electrolytes – 1 to 2 qts. Every 6 to 8 hrs. Intravenous electrolytes Antibiotics – E. coli septicemia

29 Genetic Defects Homozygous Recessive Genes Double Recessive Genes Passed by both Parents

30 Anal Atresia Scrotal Hernia Cryptorchidism Cleft Palate Over-shot Jaw Mulefoot Dwarfism Five-legged Supernumerary Teats No Teats No Tail

31 Twinning Genetic Inheritable (1% Rate) Free Martins Lighter Birth Weights Heavier Dual Weaning Weights Retained Placentas Dystocias Perinatal Calf Mortality Reduced Fertility Increased Nutritional Requirements


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