2 Vital Signs of Beef Cattle Temp avgPulse BPMRespiration breaths per minute
3 AnthraxCaused by bacteria that may remain in the soil for 40 years or longerBacteria only become active under certain conditions.Infection results from grazing infected pastures.Bacteria enter through the mouth, nose or open wounds.Biting insects may spread the disease from one animal to another
9 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Chronic, degenerative diseaseAffects the central nervous system1 of several brain disease called Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy's (TSE’s)Other TSE’sChronic Wasting Disease in deer and elkFeline Spongiform EncephalopathyTransmissible Mink EncephalopathyCreutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD- ID in the 1920’s)New variant CJD (nvCJD ID in 1995)Gertsmann-Straussler-Scheinker SyndromeKuru
10 BSE in the United States and the World Rare3 cases in the United StatesFirst diagnosed in Great Britain in 1986The US has not imported any beef from Great Britain since 1985USDA and the APHIS maintain constant surveillance and enforce import restrictions.
11 Symptoms Nervousness or aggression Muscle twitching Abnormal posture Loss of body weightDecrease in milk productionDifficulty in rising after lying downEventual death
12 Causes of BSE Not fully known Related to a prion Prion- a microscopic protein particle that is similar to a virus but lacks nucleic acidMay be contracted by ingesting protein in feed that came from an animal source that was contaminatedBelieved to have been caused by feeding cattle renderings from Scrapie infected sheep1997 the FDA banned using ANY mammal derived protein in cattle feed in the US
13 Incubation of and Testing for BSE Ranges from 2-8 yearsDeath occurs within 2 weeks to 6 months after clinical symptoms appearNo test to determine if live cattle are infectedOnly a postmortem microscopic examination of the brain can determine if the animal had BSEBrain tissue in infected animals has a spongy appearance when examined under a microscopeThere is no treatment for BSE
15 Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD) Common throughout the United StatesMay appear in mild, acute & chronic formsSpreads by contact
16 Mild BVD Often no symptoms If they are present: FeverCoughingDischarge from the noseSlow gainsRapid breathingMild diarrheaAnimals that have had the mild form of the disease are immune to further infection.
17 Acute BVD Fever Difficult breathing Discharges from the nose and mouth Pregnant animals may abort if contracted with in the first 2 months of pregnancyFetus’s may mummify if contracted from the th day of pregnancyFetus may also suffer brain damage, hairlessness and underdeveloped lungs in later stages of pregnancyFeverDifficult breathingDischarges from the nose and mouthPossible lamenessDehydrationWeight lossDiarrhea after 3-7 days
18 Chronic BVD All the same symptoms as the acute plus Slow gains Rough hair coatLameness
19 Prevention Modified live virus vaccine Vaccinate calves between 1 day of age and 3 weeks before weaningMay be vaccinated upon arrival in the feedlotThey should not be vaccinated if they were vaccinated as calvesPregnant cattle should not be vaccinatedAdult cattle should only be vaccinatedAfter calvingAt least 3 weeks before breedingReplacement heifers should be vaccinated between 9 & 12 months of age but not during the last 3 weeks before breedingNo cure
20 Brucellosis Caused by microorganisms Results in heavy economic losses Less common due to state and federal eradication programs—all states are now free of brucellosis in domestic cattle herdsDangerous to humans
21 Symptoms Abortion during the last ½ of pregnancy Retaining of afterbirth (placenta)Sterility in cows and bullsReduced milk flowEnlarged testiclesWeak calves (if born from infected cows)
22 Brucellosis Spreads By… Bringing infected cattle into the herdFence line contact with infected animalsAborted fetus’s that carry the Brucella organism being carried to other farms by dogs and other carnivorous animalsCalves being infected by their mothersCattle coming in contact with feed or water where the organism is presentSniffing or licking an aborted fetus or calf from a cow that has the disease
23 Prevention and Cure No cure Prevention is accomplished by good herd management
24 Blackleg Caused by bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen When exposed to air the bacteria form a spore and may live in the soil for many yearsSpores enter the animal through the mouth or woundsYoung animals are more commonly affected
25 Symptoms First sign is one or more animals suddenly die Before death symptoms are:LamenessSwollen musclesSevere depressionHigh fever (in early stages)Animal may be unable to stand
26 Prevention Vaccination Calves are vaccinated when young (typically in the spring at branding or shortly after calving) and again at weaning (fall)Dead animals should be burned or buried
27 Treatment Massive doses of antibiotics Treatment is only effective if diagnosed earlyPrevention is more effective and less costly.
28 Scours Disease complex (group of diseases) Most common in fall, winter and springAffects young calvescalves over 2 months of age are seldom affected
29 Symptoms Acute Chronic Shock Nose, ears and legs are cold Diarrhea Sudden deathChronicSymptoms for several daysWeight lossDeath after several days if not treated
30 Prevention Sanitation Calf needs colostrums (first milk) Clean barns and buckets for bucket calvesCalf needs colostrums (first milk)Supplement the cows diet with Vitamin A before calvingVaccines (most common types of scours)Vaccinate mothers at least 30 days prior to calving
32 Foot RotCaused by a variety of bacteria, fungi and other organisms found in feedlotsEnter the body when the skin of the foot is brokenMuddy, manure filled feedlots only increase the problem
33 Symptoms First noticeable sign is lameness Other symptoms Loss of appetiteFeverDepressionAnimals may not want to stand or move aroundDeath may eventually result
34 Prevention Sanitation and paved lots work best Good drainage and mounds in the feedlot also help prevent conditions that encourage the disease.Spreading lime and 5% blue vitriol around water tanks and feed bunks
38 Symptoms Tumors or lumps on the jaw. Loose teeth Spongy jaw bone resulting in breathing problems.Weight loss due to difficulty eating
39 Treatments and Prevention Surgical treatment may allow the animal to remain marketable but complete recovery is usually not possible.To prevent keep sharp objects out of the feedlot or pasture.
40 Pinkeye Carried by insects Affects the eye of the animal A viral form of pink eye is associated with IBRWhite faced cattle and those with pink skin pigment around the eye are more likely to be infectedPinkeye occurs year round but is most common during periods of maximum sunlight.
41 Mild Pinkeye Eyeball develops a pinkish color Cornea becomes slightly clouded
42 Acute Pinkeye Flowing of tears Cloudiness of cornea As the infection progresses the cloudy condition becomes worse and ulcers may develop on the eyeThe eye may become so damaged that blindness resultsThe condition may last 3-4 weeks and if not treated will spread to the whole heard
43 Spread By Insects Direct Contact with infected animals Dust Tail switching
45 Treatment Isolated in a dark place Apply Antibiotics and sulfa drugs to the eyeA cloth patch can be used on the affected eye
46 Shipping Fever (PI3 Pasteurella, Bovine Respiratory Disease) A disease complex that affects the respiratory tractMost common in young cattle at times of stress
47 Stresses Moving from range to the feedlot Extremes of heat or cold Exhaust fumesHungerFrightRough handling
48 Symptoms Early on----fever Depression Drooping ears Discharge from the noseWatery eyesLoss of appetiteDiarrheaWeight lossDifficult breathingCoughingPneumoniaPossibly deathIf the animal recovers it will be slow to gain
49 Prevention Vaccination after 4 mo. of age Best time is 3-4 weeks before weaning/shippingReducing stress and exposureGood feedlot management and careful handling of new cattle
50 Treatment Antibiotics Sulfa drugs Treatment must begin as soon as symptoms are noticedTreatment after an animal has developed pneumonia is of little value.
51 TrichomoniasisA venereal disease caused by a protozoan, Trichomona fetusInfects the genital tract of the bull and is transmitted to the cow during breedingClean bulls can also be infected by breeding “dirty” cowsCan also be transmitted through infected semen, even when artificial insemination is used.
52 Symptoms Abortion in early gestation Low fertility Irregular heat periodsUterine infectionCows may have discharge from their genital tractBulls may not show any symptoms but still be capable of transmitting the disease during breedingIdentified by microscopic examination of material from an aborted fetus, the prepuital cavity of the bull or vaginal discharge from the cow
53 Trich Prevention Semen testing Testing cows before breeding Using only clean bulls on clean cowsSelling all open cows
54 Vibriosis Reproductive disease Both intestinal and venereal Leading cause of infertility and abortion in the cattle industry
55 Vibrosis Intestinal form has little harmful effect Venereal form is more seriousIf the organism infects the uterus there will be some abortion in the herdNumber of cows infected is usually smallCows do not become sterile and bulls are not affected.
56 Symptoms In chronically infected herds Infertility Abortion Conception rate is lower than normal-about 60-70%Heifers or new additions will require repeat breeding or will abortInfertilityAbortionIrregular heat periodsIn newly affected herds conception rates may drop below 40%Calving season is longerMore open cows in the fall
57 Prevention and Treatment Vaccinate animals 30 days prior to breedingVaccination must be repeated every yearBulls may be treated with antibiotics but the process is difficultCows may settle easier if treated with antibioticsSkipping two heat cycles before attempting to breed the cow usually improves the conception rate of infected cowsCows with the disease eventually develop immunity and will breed againThe use of AI helps in prevention because the semen used for AI is treated with antibiotics to eliminate disease organisms.
58 RingwormA contagious skin disease that can be spread to other animals and humansSymptomsRound, scaly patches of skin that lack hairThe affected area clears up but moves to another part of the bodySanitationIsolate infected animalsTreat with iodine tincture or quaternary ammonium compounds