Presentation on theme: "Diseases and Parasites of Cattle. Vital Signs of Beef Cattle Temp. 100.4-102.8 avg. 101.5 Pulse 60-70 BPM Respiration 10-30 breaths per minute."— Presentation transcript:
Diseases and Parasites of Cattle
Vital Signs of Beef Cattle Temp avg Pulse BPM Respiration breaths per minute
Anthrax Caused by bacteria that may remain in the soil for 40 years or longer – Bacteria only become active under certain conditions. Infection results from grazing infected pastures. Bacteria enter through the mouth, nose or open wounds. Biting insects may spread the disease from one animal to another
The Anthrax Cycle
Symptoms Sudden death-usually within a few hours of symptoms Less acute symptoms – High fever – Sudden staggering – Hard breathing – Trembling – Collapse
What to Do Carcasses should be burned or buried at least 6’ deep and covered with quicklime – Take care not to bury the animal near wells or streams.
Prevention Vaccination In problem areas vaccination should occur yearly Where it is not common, vaccinate on the recommendation of a vet.
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Chronic, degenerative disease Affects the central nervous system 1 of several brain disease called Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy's (TSE’s) Other TSE’s – Chronic Wasting Disease in deer and elk – Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy – Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy – Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD- ID in the 1920’s) – New variant CJD (nvCJD ID in 1995) – Gertsmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome – Kuru
BSE in the United States and the World Rare 3 cases in the United States First diagnosed in Great Britain in 1986 – The US has not imported any beef from Great Britain since 1985 USDA and the APHIS maintain constant surveillance and enforce import restrictions.
Symptoms Nervousness or aggression Muscle twitching Abnormal posture Loss of body weight Decrease in milk production Difficulty in rising after lying down Eventual death
Causes of BSE Not fully known Related to a prion – Prion - a microscopic protein particle that is similar to a virus but lacks nucleic acid May be contracted by ingesting protein in feed that came from an animal source that was contaminated – Believed to have been caused by feeding cattle renderings from Scrapie infected sheep 1997 the FDA banned using ANY mammal derived protein in cattle feed in the US
Incubation of and Testing for BSE Ranges from 2-8 years Death occurs within 2 weeks to 6 months after clinical symptoms appear No test to determine if live cattle are infected Only a postmortem microscopic examination of the brain can determine if the animal had BSE – Brain tissue in infected animals has a spongy appearance when examined under a microscope There is no treatment for BSE
Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD) Common throughout the United States May appear in mild, acute & chronic forms Spreads by contact
Mild BVD Often no symptoms If they are present: – Fever – Coughing – Discharge from the nose – Slow gains – Rapid breathing – Mild diarrhea Animals that have had the mild form of the disease are immune to further infection.
Acute BVD Fever Difficult breathing Discharges from the nose and mouth Possible lameness Dehydration Weight loss Diarrhea after 3-7 days Pregnant animals may abort if contracted with in the first 2 months of pregnancy Fetus’s may mummify if contracted from the th day of pregnancy Fetus may also suffer brain damage, hairlessness and underdeveloped lungs in later stages of pregnancy
Chronic BVD All the same symptoms as the acute plus – Slow gains – Rough hair coat – Lameness
Prevention Modified live virus vaccine Vaccinate calves between 1 day of age and 3 weeks before weaning May be vaccinated upon arrival in the feedlot – They should not be vaccinated if they were vaccinated as calves Pregnant cattle should not be vaccinated Adult cattle should only be vaccinated – After calving – At least 3 weeks before breeding Replacement heifers should be vaccinated between 9 & 12 months of age but not during the last 3 weeks before breeding No cure
Brucellosis Caused by microorganisms Results in heavy economic losses Less common due to state and federal eradication programs—all states are now free of brucellosis in domestic cattle herds Dangerous to humans
Symptoms Abortion during the last ½ of pregnancy Retaining of afterbirth (placenta) Sterility in cows and bulls Reduced milk flow Enlarged testicles Weak calves (if born from infected cows)
Brucellosis Spreads By… Bringing infected cattle into the herd Fence line contact with infected animals Aborted fetus’s that carry the Brucella organism being carried to other farms by dogs and other carnivorous animals Calves being infected by their mothers Cattle coming in contact with feed or water where the organism is present Sniffing or licking an aborted fetus or calf from a cow that has the disease
Prevention and Cure No cure Prevention is accomplished by good herd management
Blackleg Caused by bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen When exposed to air the bacteria form a spore and may live in the soil for many years Spores enter the animal through the mouth or wounds Young animals are more commonly affected
Symptoms First sign is one or more animals suddenly die Before death symptoms are: – Lameness – Swollen muscles – Severe depression – High fever (in early stages) – Animal may be unable to stand
Prevention Vaccination Calves are vaccinated when young (typically in the spring at branding or shortly after calving) and again at weaning (fall) Dead animals should be burned or buried
Treatment Massive doses of antibiotics Treatment is only effective if diagnosed early Prevention is more effective and less costly.
Scours Disease complex (group of diseases) Most common in fall, winter and spring Affects young calves – calves over 2 months of age are seldom affected
Symptoms Acute – Shock – Nose, ears and legs are cold – Diarrhea – Sudden death Chronic – Symptoms for several days – Weight loss – Death after several days if not treated
Prevention Sanitation – Clean barns and buckets for bucket calves Calf needs colostrums (first milk) Supplement the cows diet with Vitamin A before calving Vaccines (most common types of scours) – Vaccinate mothers at least 30 days prior to calving
Treatment Antibiotics Sulfa drugs
Foot Rot Caused by a variety of bacteria, fungi and other organisms found in feedlots Enter the body when the skin of the foot is broken Muddy, manure filled feedlots only increase the problem
Symptoms First noticeable sign is lameness Other symptoms – Loss of appetite – Fever – Depression – Animals may not want to stand or move around Death may eventually result
Prevention Sanitation and paved lots work best Good drainage and mounds in the feedlot also help prevent conditions that encourage the disease. Spreading lime and 5% blue vitriol around water tanks and feed bunks
Lump Jaw Chronic Rarely causes death Results in economic losses because the affected body part is condemned at slaughter Affects the jaw and surrounding bony part of the head
Symptoms Tumors or lumps on the jaw. Loose teeth Spongy jaw bone resulting in breathing problems. Weight loss due to difficulty eating
Treatments and Prevention Surgical treatment may allow the animal to remain marketable but complete recovery is usually not possible. To prevent keep sharp objects out of the feedlot or pasture.
Pinkeye Carried by insects Affects the eye of the animal A viral form of pink eye is associated with IBR White faced cattle and those with pink skin pigment around the eye are more likely to be infected Pinkeye occurs year round but is most common during periods of maximum sunlight.
Mild Pinkeye Eyeball develops a pinkish color Cornea becomes slightly clouded
Acute Pinkeye Flowing of tears Cloudiness of cornea As the infection progresses the cloudy condition becomes worse and ulcers may develop on the eye The eye may become so damaged that blindness results The condition may last 3-4 weeks and if not treated will spread to the whole heard
Spread By Insects Direct Contact with infected animals Dust Tail switching
Prevention Control flies and insects Vacinate
Treatment Isolated in a dark place Apply Antibiotics and sulfa drugs to the eye A cloth patch can be used on the affected eye
Shipping Fever (PI 3 Pasteurella, Bovine Respiratory Disease) A disease complex that affects the respiratory tract Most common in young cattle at times of stress
Stresses Moving from range to the feedlot Extremes of heat or cold Exhaust fumes Hunger Fright Rough handling
Symptoms Early on----fever Depression Drooping ears Discharge from the nose Watery eyes Loss of appetite Diarrhea Weight loss Difficult breathing Coughing Pneumonia Possibly death If the animal recovers it will be slow to gain
Prevention Vaccination after 4 mo. of age Best time is 3-4 weeks before weaning/shipping Reducing stress and exposure Good feedlot management and careful handling of new cattle
Treatment Antibiotics Sulfa drugs Treatment must begin as soon as symptoms are noticed Treatment after an animal has developed pneumonia is of little value.
Trichomoniasis A venereal disease caused by a protozoan, Trichomona fetus Infects the genital tract of the bull and is transmitted to the cow during breeding Clean bulls can also be infected by breeding “dirty” cows Can also be transmitted through infected semen, even when artificial insemination is used.
Symptoms Abortion in early gestation Low fertility Irregular heat periods Uterine infection Cows may have discharge from their genital tract Bulls may not show any symptoms but still be capable of transmitting the disease during breeding Identified by microscopic examination of material from an aborted fetus, the prepuital cavity of the bull or vaginal discharge from the cow
Trich Prevention Semen testing Testing cows before breeding Using only clean bulls on clean cows Selling all open cows
Vibriosis Reproductive disease Both intestinal and venereal Leading cause of infertility and abortion in the cattle industry
Vibrosis Intestinal form has little harmful effect Venereal form is more serious If the organism infects the uterus there will be some abortion in the herd Number of cows infected is usually small Cows do not become sterile and bulls are not affected.
Symptoms Infertility Abortion Irregular heat periods In newly affected herds conception rates may drop below 40% Calving season is longer More open cows in the fall In chronically infected herds – Conception rate is lower than normal-about % – Heifers or new additions will require repeat breeding or will abort
Prevention and Treatment Vaccinate animals 30 days prior to breeding ▫ Vaccination must be repeated every year Bulls may be treated with antibiotics but the process is difficult Cows may settle easier if treated with antibiotics Skipping two heat cycles before attempting to breed the cow usually improves the conception rate of infected cows Cows with the disease eventually develop immunity and will breed again The use of AI helps in prevention because the semen used for AI is treated with antibiotics to eliminate disease organisms.
Ringworm A contagious skin disease that can be spread to other animals and humans Symptoms – Round, scaly patches of skin that lack hair The affected area clears up but moves to another part of the body Sanitation Isolate infected animals Treat with iodine tincture or quaternary ammonium compounds