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Nuclear WeaponsChemical WeaponsBiological Weapons.

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Presentation on theme: "Nuclear WeaponsChemical WeaponsBiological Weapons."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Nuclear WeaponsChemical WeaponsBiological Weapons

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7  Prohibits the development, production, possession, or use of biological weapons.  Ratified by U.S. and 162 other countries.  Problem: No inspections - so no way to enforce or to verify compliance. What You Need to Kow About Biological Weapons, 1952

8  2001 protocol requiring inspections of military and pharmaceutical facilities was rejected by Bush administration.  Said inspections would expose U.S. secrets to enemies and rivals.

9  Wants to “revitalize” Biological Weapons Convention, but will not seek negotiations on verification and international enforce- ment.  Same position that Bush took.

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13  Bans the production, possession, and use of poisonous gases and other chemical weapons.  Signers must submit to rigorous inspections to verify their compliance.  Ratified by the U.S.

14 Signatories (but not yet ratified) 1. Israel 2. Myanmar Non-members 1. Angola 2. Egypt 3. North Korea 4. Somalia 5. Syria

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16  What are the three types of WMD?  Which types of WMD are prohibited by existing disarmament treaties?  Has the U.S. ratified both of these treaties?  Why hasn’t the United States supported the Biological Weapons Protocol?

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19  More than 70 million land mines are strewn across 90 countries around the world.  In 2010, 1,200 people were killed and 3,800 wounded by landmines.  Over 80% of the victims are civilians; between one third to one half of those killed are children. UN Anti-Landmine Commercial

20 Landmine Victims

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22  Afghanistan, Angola and Cambodia have suffered 85 per cent of the world's land-mine casualties.  Overall, African children live on the most mine- plagued continent, with an estimated 37 million mines embedded in at least 19 countries.

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28 Treaty Provisions  Total ban on production, export, and use of anti-personnel mines.  Provides funding for the removal of existing land mines.  Provides aid to the victims of land mines.

29 As of Sept. 2011, 159 countries have signed the Land Mine Treaty

30  President Clinton did NOT sign the treaty and the Bush administration didn’t support it either.

31 Why hasn’t the U.S. joined the landmine treaty?  U.S. military uses landmines (almost 1 million!) in South Korea to protect South Korea and U.S. troops there from an invasion by North Korea.  Military wants exemption for these mines.

32 Landmine Treaty took effect in 1999 without U.S. participation.

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36  158 countries have now signed the Landmine Treaty.  2.2 million antipersonnel mines, 250,000 anti-vehicle mines, and 17 million other explosives have been removed.  U.S. hasn’t used antipersonnel mines since the Gulf War in 1991, and stopped producing them in 1997 (We have a reserve stockpile of 10,000 mines).

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38  Nov – Obama administration announced decision that it would not sign the landmine treaty.  “We would not be able to meet our national defense needs nor our security commitments to our allies.”

39  Human rights and disarmament groups reacted with shock and anger.  68 Senators (inc. ten Republicans ) have now signed letter to Obama supporting a review of U.S. policy on landmines. Reaction by Human Rights WatchReaction by Human Rights Watch 1 Human Rights Watch reaction 2

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42  Bombs, artillery shells, and missiles that contain many smaller “bomblets,” as small as flashlight batteries.  One cluster bomb can scatter hundreds of mini-explosives over an area the size of several football fields.  Bombs that don’t explode can detonate at the slightest touch and pose huge risk to civilians.

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48  New international law bans the use, manufacture, or stockpiling of most types of cluster bombs.  69 nations – including the U.S. – haven’t signed the ban.  U.S. has used cluster bombs in Iraq and Afghanistan.

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51  What is the main argument in support of a ban on land mines?  Has the U.S. joined the Land Mine Treaty?  Why does the U.S. military oppose the Land Mine Treaty?  What is Obama’s position on the Land Mine Treaty?  What are cluster bombs and why are they so dangerous?  Explain the U.S. position on the international ban on the use of cluster bombs.


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