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Challenge of Nuclear Weapons Study guide 2. 1. List two arguments in favor of nuclear weapons. P. 13 Deterrence continues to protect the U.S. from aggression.

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Presentation on theme: "Challenge of Nuclear Weapons Study guide 2. 1. List two arguments in favor of nuclear weapons. P. 13 Deterrence continues to protect the U.S. from aggression."— Presentation transcript:

1 Challenge of Nuclear Weapons Study guide 2

2 1. List two arguments in favor of nuclear weapons. P. 13 Deterrence continues to protect the U.S. from aggression – No one country would risk its own existence by attacking another country that has nuclear weapons Nuclear weapons make the world safer – Countries are less willing to risk the use of force If more countries had nuclear weapons the risk of war between these countries would decrease – Countries and their leaders make rational decisions and their primary purpose is to ensure their country’s survival

3 2. List two arguments against nuclear weapons p. 14 Deterrence cannot be relied upon to preserve the safety of nations – Imperfect human beings are involved Human error cannot be discounted Accidents have happened in the past although no nu clear detonation has occurred Unauthorized use – China, India, and Pakistan do not have safeguards as good as U.S. and Russia Cannot prevent unauthorized use (Chinese military)

4 2. Continued False alarms could lead to an attack – Launch on Warning (LoW) 15 minute decision – Heed the warning of War Games (global thermo nuclear war) Danger of State Collapse – Political instability Nuclear arsenals may fall into hands of extremists or terrorists

5 3. What is the difference between a strategic and a tactical nuclear weapon p.13 Strategic – long range – Land-based ICBMs, submarine based SLBMs, and gravity bombs in planes Tactical – short range Nuclear land mines, artillery shells, anti- aircraft explosives

6 4. What is the purpose of the Cooperative Threat Reduction programs? P. 16 Nunn-Lugar Act (1991) – Safely dismantle, dispose of, and safely store nuclear weapons materials

7 5. What is the purpose of the National Missile Defense program? List to arguments made by its opponents. P. 17 The purpose is to protect the U.S. against a small number of ballistic missiles, either accidentally launched against the U.S. or from a country with only a few ICBMs. (China, NK) Con – Millions spent, tests unsuccessful – Unnecessary, not needed – strategies in place work – Could provoke a new arms race

8 6. What is nuclear proliferation? P. 18 The spread of nuclear weapons – Increases chance of use – Increases probability of an accident – Of unauthorized use – Chance going to terrorists – Can help keep peace As nuclear weapons did during Cold War MAD (mass assured destruction) deters use

9 7. List the three central components of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) p. 18 Designed to limit the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology Most widely adhered to arms control treaty – 1. states that had manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon before 1967 not give nuclear weapons or technology to non-nuclear state and must reduce stockpiles – 2. states must not acquire or produce nuclear weapons in exchange for the right to acquire equipment, materials, and knowledge for peaceful purposes – 3. states must submit to monitoring by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) continued

10 7. NPT continued China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, U.S. have signed India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel have not signed – North Korea was a member but withdrew in 2002 and began its nuclear weapons program in earnest Treaty specifies nuclear weapons states are to pursue nuclear disarmament

11 8. What was Abdul Qadeer-Kahn known for? P. 20 Known as the father of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program “Wal-Mart” of Nuclear Proliferation – Hero in Pakistan – Ringleader of an international smuggling ring that sold nuclear weapons, plans and technology Iran, North Korea, and Libya

12 9. List two countries where nuclear proliferation is a concern. Explain the concern in each country. P. 20+ India and Pakistan – India and Pakistan fighting over borders – Pakistan providing info and equipment to North Korea and Iran – Weapons may fall into the hands of Pakistani extremists – Many experts believe the greatest security threat today is the possibility of nuclear proliferation by Pakistan

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