Presentation on theme: "Doomsday Clock Bulletin of atomic scientists www.thebulletin.org."— Presentation transcript:
Doomsday Clock Bulletin of atomic scientists
About the clock: Established in 1947, after the U.S. used atomic weapons in WWII. Method of reading nuclear danger. The closer to midnight, the more dangerous the world becomes.
What is the threat based on? First and foremost, nuclear weapons. Greatest threat to mankind! But it also includes climate-changing technologies and new developments in the life sciences.
History of clock 1953 | Two minutes to midnight The United States and the Soviet Union test thermonuclear devices within nine months of one another. Two countries now have nukes!
History continued… 1963 | Twelve minutes to midnight The U.S. and Soviet signing of the Partial Test Ban Treaty, tensions ease after Cuban Missile Crisis. Any treaty to reduce number of weapons will move clock back!
History… 1968 | Seven minutes to midnight France and China acquire nuclear weapons. Great Britain also has nukes. Who’s laughing now Nixon?
History… 1969 | Ten minutes to midnight The U.S. Senate ratifies the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. What is the NPT Treaty?
Treaties are Law Based on NPT- Signed by 170 countries. Big 5 committed to eliminate their nukes and to other countries committed to NOT developing weapons. Did not sign, Cuba, South Africa, Israel, Pakistan, India, Brazil & Argentina. Non- Proliferation Treaty
History… 1974 | Nine minutes to midnight SALT talks reach an impasse; India develops a nuclear weapon. You gotta be kiddin’ me!!!
History… 1984 | Three minutes to midnight The arms race accelerates. Reagan continues defense spending increases; including developing more nuclear weapons. I love my military
History… 1991 | Seventeen minutes to midnight The United States and the Soviet Union sign the START Treaty. End of Cold War! Furthest ever from midnight. Boris, I’m glad we are friends now. Man, Rocky’s Speech worked!!
Drastic reductions after Cold War!
History 1998 | Nine minutes to midnight India and Pakistan "go public" with nuclear tests. You too? That’s It, I’m gonna go Fast… India’s goin’ down!!!!
History 2002 | Seven minutes to midnight The U.S. announces it will withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Terrorists seek to acquire and use nuclear and biological weapons. Excuse me, how can I get To the nearest black market?
History 2007/ Five Minutes to Midnight North Korea tests a bomb. Now the North Koreans have weapons! Axis of Evil! 2012, N. Korea still has nuclear weapons!
North Korea becomes a nuclear power?
2012, some believe Iran has nuclear weapons? Iran says NO Weapons! Others believe they are developing technology..
World’s Nuclear Arsenal 2010 The world's combined stockpile of nuclear warheads remain at a very high level: more than 22,000. Of these, some 4,800 warheads are considered operational, of which nearly 2,000 U.S. and Russian warheads are on high alert, ready for use on short notice.
Best estimates based on FAS #8: Pakistan: nuclear warheads #7: India: #6: Israel: 80 #5: China: 240 #4 Great Britain: 225 #3: France: 300 #2: USA: 8,500 FAS- Federation of American Scientist
#1 Nuclear Power #1: Russia 11,000 warheads. MAD- Mutually Assured Destruction- Russia & U.S. had so many nukes they could not attack each other!
2010/ 6 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT International cooperation rules the day. Talks between U.S. & Russia. Start V Treaty. Barack Obama becomes the first U.S. president to publicly call for a nuclear- weapon-free world. The dangers posed by climate change are still great, but there are pockets of progress.
Why do countries want nuclear weapons? Deterrence Power & International Prestige Alliance building
International Atomic Energy Agency Inspectors The programs of the IAEA encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear technology Provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology through IAEA Inspectors. Reports to the United Nations