Presentation on theme: "Military Casualties in World War I 1914-1918. When someone “wins” a war, what should be their goal at the negotiating table (Peace Treaty)? Land Gains."— Presentation transcript:
When someone “wins” a war, what should be their goal at the negotiating table (Peace Treaty)? Land Gains Financial Gains Defense Gains Release Prosecution of War Criminal Punishment of Enemy
The time period immediately following a war is dangerous because it can often sow the seeds for the next war. Can anyone think of a current example of this? George H.W. Bush’s decision not to proceed to Baghdad in the first Gulf War.
By the end of this lesson we will be able to: Explain Wilson’s Fourteen Points and compare the reaction of the European people to the document to Allied leaders. Analyze the outcomes of the Treaty of Versailles and their affect on Europe. Explain the League of Nations and analyze why it was ineffective.
At the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month. With allied forces on the offensive, the German Chancellor agreed to abdicate (step down). An armistice to stop the fighting was signed on November 11 th, 1918.
Should the Allies have punished Germany for starting WWI? European leaders thought they should, Woodrow Wilson felt differently.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Among Wilson’s Fourteen Points were a call for freedom of the seas, and end to secret alliances, and respect for self-determination. What is self-determination? Wilson felt the most important of the Fourteen points was the League of Nations.
League of Nations Wilson called for an International body designed to mediate the problems of the world. He hoped the bond between nations could end war. Does the League of Nations sound like any International body today?
Clemenceau V. Wilson Wilson felt it important not to punish Germany because he believed it could lead to future wars. Clemenceau believed France and other nations had suffered severely at the hands of German aggression and that Germany should be punished. Do you agree with Clemenceau? Why or why not?
Reaction to the Fourteen Points Who won the argument?
The Treaty of Versailles The United States, Britain, France, and Italy shaped the negotiations. Russia and Germany had no say.
Germany was forced to pay a harsh penalty for the war. Reparations, most of which they could not afford. Almost all of Wilson’s Fourteen points were rejected.
Self-Interest and Long Lasting Implication of the Treaty Wilson called for self-determination. Instead the allies took many of the land fought for and colonized, agreeing to some control from the League of Nations. Germany was punished severely. The League of Nations was the only one of Wilson’s Fourteen Points to make it into the treaty. The Treaty had far reaching implications.
Reactions to the treaty and League of Nations at home Three Parties at Home A.Those Favored Treaty B.Those who opposed under all circumstances called irreconcilables. C.Those who supported the league but were concerned with Article X. They were called reservationists.
Article X Both reservationists and irreconcilables feared that Article X gave the League the authority to determine if the U.S. could defend itself or declare war to protect her interest. The feared the League superseded the power of Congress to declared war. Stated that the League preserve “the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all members of the League.”
Henry Cabot Lodge led the opposition to the League Lodge resented Wilson’s aristocratic ways and the fact that Wilson would get credit for the League. Lodge proposed a similar body on other occasions. He was motivated by anger and genuine misgivings.
Reactions to the treaty and League of Nations at home
Outcome of the League debate Wilson refused to negotiate. He went directly to the people for support. While doing so, he collapsed and had a stroke. The Senate voted to reject the Versailles Peace Treaty. The United States did not act on any of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.