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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 12: Human Growth and Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 12: Human Growth and Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 12: Human Growth and Development

2 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Male Reproductive System Primary Organs –Gonads: testes Accessory Structures –Ducts that transport sperm cells & hormones –Exocrine glands

3 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Male Reproductive System (cont’d)

4 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Testes Located outside body, midline below torso Suspended by spermatic cord in scrotum Spermatic cord: bundle of blood & lymphatic vessels & nerves Oval-shaped Site of sperm generation Produce testosterone

5 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Structure of the Testis

6 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Testosterone Main male sex hormone Diffuses from testes into surrounding fluid & is absorbed into bloodstream Functions: –Develops & maintains reproductive structures –Develops sperm cells –Develops secondary sex characteristics (deeper voice, body hair)

7 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Spermatozoa Sperm cells Fertilize egg cell >200 million in average ejaculation Manufactured continuously after puberty in testes Head: nucleus containing chromosomes, enzymes to penetrate ovum Tail: propels sperm through female reproductive system to reach ovum

8 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Accessory Structures Epididymis –Coiled tube on surface of testes –Stores sperm Vas deferens –Duct in spermatic cord –Carries sperm to ejaculatory duct Ejaculatory duct –Delivers sperm to urethra Penis: delivers sperm to vagina during intercourse

9 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Semen Mix of sperm cells & secretions from other glands Expelled from body in ejaculation Functions of secretions in semen: –Nourish sperm cells –Transport them –Neutralize acidity of male urethra & female vaginal tract –Lubricate female reproductive tract during intercourse –Prevent infection by using antibacterial enzymes & antibodies

10 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Urethra and Penis Urethra –Tube that transports both urine & semen through pelvic cavity & penis –Ejection of semen made possible by erection Penis –Made of spongy tissue that engorges with blood when erect –Contractions of skeletal muscles in pelvic floor expel semen –Penis & scrotum make up male external genitalia

11 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Common Diseases and Conditions of the Male Reproductive System Enlarged prostate Prostate cancer Testicular cancer Orchitis Cryptorchidism Epididymitis

12 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Female Reproductive System Ovaries –Female gonads –Site of egg formation Accessory Structures –Uterus –Various passageways –Bartholin glands –External genitalia –Breasts

13 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Female Reproductive System (cont’d)

14 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Female Reproductive System (cont’d)

15 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Ovaries Outer layer consists of single layer of epithelium Ovarian follicle –Cluster of cells where ovum ripens –Secretes estrogen, beginning development of endometrium Ovulation –Follicle ruptures & discharges ripened egg Menstruation –The sloughing off of endometrium –Expulsion of unfertilized egg

16 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Accessory Structures Fallopian tubes Uterus Vagina Bartholin glands Vulva & perineum Breasts

17 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Menstrual Cycle Process that prepares female’s body for pregnancy Egg ripens & is released Endometrium is prepared If no fertilization: –Estrogen & progesterone levels decrease –Bloody discharge Average duration: 2 to 6 days

18 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Common Diseases and Conditions of the Female Reproductive System Cervical cancer Ovarian tumors Pelvic inflammatory disease Uterine cancer Breast cancer Endometriosis Fibroid tumors Menstrual disorders Yeast infection

19 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Effects of Aging on the Reproductive System Men: decrease in testosterone production Women: menopause—menstruation gradually ceases

20 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Common Diseases and Conditions of Both the Male & Female Reproductive Systems Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Genital herpes Human papillomavirus (HPV) Pubic lice Infertility

21 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Factors Influencing Growth and Development Heredity Prenatal factors (mother’s age/health during pregnancy) Caregiver factors (mental illness) Individual differences (vision & hearing impairments) Health or illness Environment, including culture Nutrition

22 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Stages of Growth and Development Embryo & fetus Neonate (birth to 1 month) Infant (1 month to 1 year) Toddler (1-3 years) Preschool child (3-6 years) School-aged child (6-12 years) Adolescent (12-18 years) Young adult (18-40 years) Middle-aged adult (40-65 years) Older adult (>65 years)

23 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Stages of Grief 1.Denial 2.Anger 3.Bargaining 4.Depression 5.Acceptance

24 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Theories of Development Erik Erikson Robert J. Havighurst Sigmund Freud Maslow’s hierarchy of needs


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