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The Reproductive System

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Presentation on theme: "The Reproductive System"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reproductive System
The reproductive system is inactive until the onset of puberty During puberty, the organs become active and reproduction becomes possible. The primary sex organs are called the gonads, with the male gonad being the testes and the female gonad being the ovaries. The gonads produce sex cells called gamates, which are called sperm in males and ova in females.

2 The Testes Small olive shaped organ
Has both endocrine and exocrine functions The exocrine function deals with the production of sperm The endocrine function deals the production of testosterone Has an elaborate transport system composed of the epididymus (storage site for immature sperm), ductus deferens (propels live sperm), and urethra (passageway that exits the body)

3 Accessory Glands and Semen
Semen – sperm containing fluid Seminal Vesicles – produce 60% f the fluid volume of semen Prostrate Gland – a chestnut shaped gland that activates sperm Bulbourethral gland – tiny, pea-sized gland that produces a lubricating secretion Scrotum – a sac that contains the testes Penis – shaft portion of the male reproductive system that is used t deliver sperm into the female reproductive system.

4 Functions of the Male Reproductive System
Spermatogenesis – sperm production Testosterone Production – produces the hormone testosterone, which is responsible for: The deepening of the voice Increased hair growth Enlargement of skeletal muscle Increased bone thickness

5 Ovaries Almond shaped organs of the female reproductive system
Contains all of the immature eggs or oocytes As the oocytes mature, a process called ovulation occurs They are connected to the exterior of the body by a duct system comprised of the:

6 Uterine or Fallopian Tubes
Form initial part of duct system Receive the ovulated oocyte and provide a site where fertilization can occur

7 Uterus A hallow organ that functions to receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized egg. Major portion is referred to as the body The superior rounded region is known as the fundus The narrow outlet that protrudes into the vagina is called the cervix When a fertilized egg reaches the uterus, it will implant into a layer called the endometrium, which has been prepared with a rich supply of blood and nutrients. If the egg is unfertilized, this layer is sloughed off during a monthly process called menstruation

8 Vagina Also called the birth canal
It connects the uterus to the exterior

9 External Genitalia Mons pubis – anterior area of the genital region that develops hair after puberty Labia majora – elongated skin folds Labia minora – delicate, hair-free folds Greater vestibular glands – secrete lubricating fluids Clitoris – small, protruding structure that corresponds to the male penis

10 Functions of the Female Reproductive System
Oogenesis – the production of female gametes Uterine (menstrual) cycle – a three stage cycle that repeats about every 28 days in which the Day 1-5: Menstrual phase – endometrial layer is sloughed off Day 6-14: Proliferative phase – the endometrial layer is rebuilt and ovulation occurs at the end of this phase Day 15-28: Secretory phase – nutrients are secreted into the uterine cavity to support a potential embryo

11 Functions of the Female Reproductive System
Estrogen Production - produces the various hormones collectively known as estrogen, which is responsible for Enlargement of the female reproductive organs Development of the breasts Appearance of axillary and pubic hair Increased deposits of fat in the hips and breasts Widening and lightening of the pelvis Onset of the menstrual cycle

12 The Mammary Gland Are present in both sexes, but normally only function in females Main purpose is to produce milk to nourish newborn babies Become active after reproduction has already been accomplished

13 Cancers of the Reproductive System
Breast Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of death in American women It is often signaled by a change in skin texture, puckering, or leakage from the nipple Early detection by breast self-examinations and mammography is the best way of increasing survival rates

14 Cancers of the Reproductive System
Cervical A slow growing cancer that develops in the cervix Is detected by a procedure called a Pap smear Prostate Cancer that develops in the prostate gland in males It is the third most prevalent cancer in men It is a slow-growing, hidden condition, but it can be swift and deadly if not detected

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