Presentation on theme: " The origin of the order is commonly given as 65 MYA (million years ago) Some estimates go back to 85 MYA."— Presentation transcript:
The origin of the order is commonly given as 65 MYA (million years ago) Some estimates go back to 85 MYA
MYA Lived in N. America and Europe Its fossils first discovered in Montana
About 50 MYA, pretty soon after the dinosaurs go extinct, there is an explosion in the number of primate species—about 6000 species arise. The 200 species now living are the what remains of this differentiation, and the descendants of the survivors.
The most basic groups to think about: Prosimians Monkeys Apes and humans
Adapted from Jurmain et al. (1998)
Limbs and locomotion: › Erect or semi-erect posture › Generalized limb structure allows a variety of locomotive behaviors.
Limbs and locomotion: › Prehensile hands and feet. Five digits Opposable thumbs and big toes Fingernail instead of claws
Generalized diet and teeth
The senses and the brain: › Color vision (diurnal primates only)
The senses and the brain: › Stereoscopic vision (depth perception) Eyes to the front Visual information from each eye transmitted to visual centers in both hemispheres in the brain Visual information processed by specialized brain structures
The senses and the brain: › Large and complex brains Visual information processing Large areas involved with the hand
Maturation, Learning and Behavior › Long gestation › Single births instead of litters › Delayed maturation › Tendency to live in mixed-age groups › Dependence on learned behavior
Theories: › Improved access to food › Protection from predators
Types of groups: › Multi-male/multi-female › Most common type. › Chimps and Bonobos usually live in mm/mf fission-fusion groups.
Types of groups: › Pair-bond › Examples: Gibbons and Siamangs, some monkeys
Types of groups: One-Male/Multi Female › Gorilla
The study of animals and their habitats that looks for patterns of relationship between the environment and social behavior.
Assumes that the various components of an environment have evolved together.
Food (amounts, qualities, distribution) Distribution of water Predators (distribution, types) Distribution of sleeping sites Activity patterns (nocturnal/diurnal) Relationships with other species Impact of human activities
Of the baboon… › (MM/MF) › Savanna › Predators can be common Of the Slow Loris… › Solitary foraging › Insectivor › Slow moving
The study of the relationship between behavior and natural selection. Sociobiological theory states that certain behaviors or behavioral pattern have been selected for because they increase reproductive success in individuals.
Infanticide K-selection (vs. r-selection) Male / Female behaviors Sexual dimorphism
The lack of long-term data: › On demography › On social behavior › Resource distribution Little data on relatedness through male line How to assign reproductive costs and benefits to particular behaviors