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Information Management Software Word processing Commonest application - Word Spreadsheet Financial and numerical analysis and record keeping - Excel Database.

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Presentation on theme: "Information Management Software Word processing Commonest application - Word Spreadsheet Financial and numerical analysis and record keeping - Excel Database."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Management Software Word processing Commonest application - Word Spreadsheet Financial and numerical analysis and record keeping - Excel Database Store, select, sort data Graphics design Create and manipulate pictures Browsers Surf the Net client Compose, send and receive s Chat client Send and receive messages interactively Desk-top publishing (DTP) Layout text and graphics professionally Presentation Create slide shows Reference Encyclopaedias and dictionaries Financial Manage and control money Web authoring Create web pages and sites.

2 Higher Software Package Presenting information for print media Virtually all the applications described in INT 2 are designed to produce printed output except for graphics and web authoring which tend to be more visual. However only word processing (WP) and desk-top publishing (DTP) are classed in this group. Presenting information for on-line media Probably the largest growth area in personal computer applications recently has been in the use of software to create presentations and web pages. Data handling – spreadsheet There is a separate unit on database software, so to avoid repetition here we will only briefly look at spreadsheet software in this classification. Project management This is software used specifically to help manage a project: the planning, monitoring and control of the various activities or resources that contribute to its success. Personal information management Personal information management software (PIM) is a type of software application designed to help users organise random bits of information. Although the category is fuzzy, most PIMs enable you to enter various kinds of textual notes – reminders, lists, and dates.

3 WP vs DTP WP tends to be used mainly for generating text, while DTP tends to use pre-prepared text. Although a package like Word has very good graphics facilities and can handle a mixture of text and graphics reasonably well, DTP manages to handle text and graphics far more easily. WP can deal with multi-page documents but when working with a large document it can take a while to move between pages and text tends to spill onto pages when you don’t want it to. DTP handles multi-page documents far better with a display whereby a click takes you to a page and what is placed on that page stays there until you decide to move it. DTP files tend to be very large especially if real pictures are used.

4 Basic Terms 1of 5 Page layout – deals first with the size and aspect of the page and the size of page margins. Within a document it then deals with setting margins, inserting headers and footers, and the number of columns of text on a page. This can be global (affecting the whole document) or local to a particular page. Headers and footers – In the header and footer section, which usually fits in the white space above and below the text, you can insert text, page numbers, time and date and in some cases autotext like ‘page x of y’. It is more usual to put chapter headings and so on in the header and page numbers in the footer although there is no rule that says you must do this. Inserting graphics – Most modern document processing software allows the user to insert graphics into the document. These graphics can be pasted into a document from the clipboard or from a file. Some software supports clip-art libraries that allow the user to search for a graphic from this extensive library either on CD­ROM, the hard disk or from the Internet.There are different ways in which the graphic can behave on the page. It can sit all by itself with white space above, below and to either side, but sometimes that is not the desired effect.

5 Basic Terms 2 of 5 This effect is called ‘text wrapping’. The graphic below has been formatted with ‘Tight’ selected from the Layout Tab in the Format Picture box in Word. The text then flows around the graphic and allows us to describe what is happening in the picture around it or down the side. Style sheets – The style-sheet feature allows the user to vary font styles, which can then very quickly and easily be applied to sections of the document. Usually some styles (such as headings and body text) are predefined, but users should be able to amend these styles and add their own. When creating a document some thought should be given to the choice of font; their styles and the sizes that are to be used for headings, body text and sub- headings.

6 Basic Terms 3 of 5 Information management software Text formatting – Document processing software allows the user almost unrestricted choice of text – fonts, styles, and sizes. If you are producing professional-looking text you should limit your use of font styles to two, Bold and Italic. Size of text can vary depending on the context of its use. If you need a heading or headline you want your text to be large and eye­-catching. If you have a document, such as a newspaper, which has multiple columns, then you need to reduce the font size slightly to allow enough words to fit on each line, to make it legible and easy for the reader to absorb.

7 Basic Terms 4 of 5 Font selection – Two basic categories of font are serif and sans serif. Serif fonts are typefaces characterised by short marks stemming from the upper and lower strokes of the letters; for example, the thin-to-thick stroke transitions that can be seen on a Times font. Sans-serif fonts do not have this feature: the stroke of each character is of an equal thickness, as seen on a font like Arial or Helvetica. TimesTimesArialArial When selecting fonts you need to be aware of two issues relating to producing text documents; these are readability and legibility. Readability refers to how easy extended sections of body text are to read. Legibility refers to how easy short pieces of text (such as newspaper headlines) are to decipher at first glance. Common rules when selecting fonts are:

8 Basic Terms 5 of 5 Choose a serif font for extended body text to make it as easy to read as possible. Choose a sans-serif font for headings that you want to stand out from the rest of the page. Colour use – On most occasions using colour when word processing will be unnecessary, as you will be outputting to a black­ and-white printer. But on some occasions you may wish to create a poster or similar eye-catching display, and document-processing software gives you a wide choice of colour options. You can select the font colour, the colour of lines in graphics, the fill colour of graphics and different gradients and mixed patterns. Use of colour is one of the strongest features of DTP and WP software. A standard combination of font, style, layout and colour used regularly within an organisation is called a house style.

9 Basic terms Pagination – There are actually two types of pagination within word processors and DTP software. The first kind refers to numbering pages in a document, and is often performed within the header or footer section. You can usually specify on what page you want the page numbering to start and the format of your page numbering. The second kind refers to dividing a document into pages. Most word processors automatically paginate documents based on a page size that you specify. Some word processors enable you to avoid widows and orphans during pagination. Contents and indexing – Most modern document processing software provides a feature to automatically create contents or index pages. Generally, if you use the built-in headings feature (in Word, headings 1 to 9) you can then use the Table of Contents or Index features (in the Insert menu in Word) and the contents will be laid out with page numbers for you. Generally you will use a contents list at the start of a document and an index at the end.

10 Basic terms (cont’d) Columns – You can set up columns in a document, although in a word processor you cannot choose just one page in a multi-page document to apply the columns to. DTP programs do handle the use of columns and placing graphics, like a newspaper masthead, across the columns, without affecting the text. Multi-page layout – Most document production software, whether a word processor or a DTP program, allows the user to define different page layouts (formats) within the one document. Both handle multi-page documents well, but DTP allows for more precise control over where text is placed. Generally experienced users find a DTP package better for dealing with multi-page documents once the text has been entered.

11 Basic Terms Inserting graphics – Most modern document processing software allows the user to insert graphics into the document. These graphics can be pasted into a document from the clipboard or from a file. Some software supports clip-art libraries that allow the user to search for a graphic from this extensive library either on CD­ROM, the hard disk or from the Internet. There are different ways in which the graphic can behave on the page. It can sit all by itself with white space above, below and to either side, but sometimes that is not the desired effect. This effect is called ‘text wrapping’. The graphic below has been formatted with ‘Tight’ selected from the Layout Tab in the Format Picture box in Word. The text then flows around the graphic and allows us to describe what is happening in the picture around it or down the side. When creating a document some thought should be given to the choice of font; their styles and the sizes that are to be used for headings, body text and sub-headings.

12 Basic terms Text formatting – Document processing software allows the user almost unrestricted choice of text – fonts, styles, and sizes. If you are producing professional-looking text you should limit your use of font styles to two, Bold and Italic. Size of text can vary depending on the context of its use. If you need a heading or headline you want your text to be large and eye­-catching. If you have a document, such as a newspaper, which has multiple columns, then you need to reduce the font size slightly to allow enough words to fit on each line, to make it legible and easy for the reader to absorb. Font selection – Two basic categories of font are serif and sans serif. Serif fonts are typefaces characterised by short marks stemming from the upper and lower strokes of the letters; for example, the thin-to-thick stroke transitions that can be seen on a Times font. Sans-serif fonts do not have this feature: the stroke of each character is of an equal thickness, as seen on a font like Arial or Helvetica. Common rules when selecting fonts are: Choose a serif font for extended body text to make it as easy to read as possible. Choose a sans-serif font for headings that you want to stand out from the rest of the page. Colour use –But on some occasions you may wish to create a poster or similar eye-catching display, and document-processing software gives you a wide choice of colour options. You can select the font colour, the colour of lines in graphics, the fill colour of graphics and different gradients and mixed patterns. Use of colour is one of the strongest features of DTP and WP software. A standard combination of font, style, layout and colour used regularly within an organisation is called a house style.

13 Serif and San serif Informal look. Best for websites More Formal look. Best for printing

14 Word Processing Software Data objects  characters, words  paragraphs  graphic objects. Operations  File menu – performed on whole files.  Edit menu – cut, copy and paste.  View menu – including headers and footers.  Insert menu – page break, date/time, picture, etc.  Format menu – format text (an extensive menu).  Tools menu – Mail merge, spelling and grammar, options and customisation.  Table menu – Insert table then table operations.  Window and Help much as in other Windows applications.  Formatting functions are found mostly in the format menu and also on the icons on the menu line with B I U on it.

15 Desk Top Publishing Advanced operations and functions ◦ Page Layout ◦ Headers and Footers ◦ Columns ◦ Multi-Page Layout ◦ Pagination ◦ Contents and Indexing ◦ Style Sheets ◦ Font Selection – Serif v San-Serif ◦ Colour use

16 Desk Top Publishing Inserting graphics  Clip art  Scanned pictures  Digital camera Formatting graphics  How graphic behaves on the page  Square, tight, in front of, behind. A graphic formatted with Tight Layout means text flows around it.

17 Desk Top Publishing Standard File, Edit, View, Window, Help. Also Layout, Type, Element Utility. ◦ most of the formatting functions here. Also a Toolbox. ◦ Arrow and Text, basic drawing tools, and a colour palette.

18 DTP terms Find definitions of the following terms:  Pagination  Widows/ Orphans  Kerning/ leading  White Space  Gutters  Watermarks  Style sheet  House Style  Template – What are the advantages and disadvantages?

19 DTP Menu Task Create a 3 fold menu. 2 pages – 3 columns in each page. Front page - Name of restaurant Suitable graphic in a sensible position. Address, Phone No Opening times tabulated Inside pages - Includes details of Starters -Description & price tabulated Main Courses - Description & price tabulated Desserts -Description & price tabulated Drinks/extras - Description & price tabulated Back Page - Delivery charges Map – sensible size Point to Location Your Name & Details Also - 1 page should show a watermark graphic with text on top, text wrap should be used on one graphic Body text -Same font & size used Headings -Same font & size used Acceptable amount of white space

20 DTP Menu Task Important points about the menu - 1. Pupils either use Pages on a Mac or Publisher on a PC. 2. They can use a template if they want. 3. Same house style used throughout the menu - headings, main body of text. 4. Front page must have the restaurant name, address & phone no, a suitably sized graphic, opening times tabulated. 5. Inside pages should have starters, main courses, dessert & drinks/extras (1 page each) 6. Back page should have a map of the location, showing enough detail, pupil's details wrapped round an irregular shape and delivery tabulated charges. 7. Graphics - at least 1 with text wrapped round it & at least 1 used as a watermark with text on top of it. 8. Pupils can search for menus on-line & copy & paste the course & its description into their layout. (You need to see that they have set their own tabs & house style)

21 Presenting Information for Print Media - Summary Most applications are designed to produce printed output, except for graphics and web authoring which tend to be more visual. Word Processing (WP) and Desk Top Publishing (DTP) are classed in this group. Differences between WP and DTP: ◦ WP is used for generating text, while DTP tends to use pre-prepared text. ◦ DTP manages to handle text and graphics far more easily. ◦ WP can deal with multi-page documents but DTP handles multi-page documents far better. ◦ DTP files tend to be very large, especially if real pictures are used.

22 Presenting Information for On-line Media Presentations  Large growth in the use of s/w to create presentations.  Cost of data projectors has dropped.  Presentation s/w allows the user to create a slide show.  Slides can hold a variety of multimedia objects.  Slides can be sequenced - jump to using hyperlinks.  PowerPoint is most popular package. Web authoring  Software allows users easily to make up web pages.  You can drag and drop objects onto the screen.  Click on icons to link graphics and media files.  Deal easily with hyper-linking.  File written as HTML.

23 Web Authoring Software Page structure ◦ Individual pages linked to form a site. Incorporation of graphics ◦ Used to enhance appearance of the page. ◦ Graphics should be JPEG or GIF – size matters. ◦ Graphics linked to the page (not pasted in). Presentation style ◦ Font selection limited, careful use of colour. Navigation ◦ Pages linked together by Hyperlinks. ◦ Set Home Page, use arrows, bookmarks, history. Templates ◦ Use style sheets to provide common fonts, colours, etc.

24 Presentation Software Page structure  Individual slides follow a linear pattern, can be hyperlinked. Incorporation of graphics  Used to enhance appearance of the page.  Graphics inserted into slide, embedded in the page. Presentation style  Font selection vast, careful use of colour. Navigation  Move to next slide by click of mouse.  Slides can be linked together by hyperlinks. Templates  Various pre-prepared templates available.  Can make up own template as a slide master.

25 Data Handling – Spreadsheet Education ◦ Record and analyse marks and results. ◦ Keeping track of budgets and financial information. Home situation ◦ Keep track of household expenditure, track share values and even keep track of contacts. ◦ Very good at formatting output, used for printing address labels. Financial application ◦ Cash flow forecast, statement of accounts, invoices, sales orders, purchase orders, etc. Modelling and simulation ◦ Predicting a new situation from existing one - “what-if?” analysis. Statistical analysis ◦ E.g. analysis of numerical information. Two examples are Descriptive Statistics and Goal Seeking. Macro use ◦ A macro is a sequence of instructions that can be used to automate complex or repetitive tasks.

26 Spreadsheet Software Data Objects  Cells and groups of cells  Containing text, numbers, formulas. Operations  File menu – performed on whole files.  Edit menu – cut, copy and paste.  View menu – including headers and footers.  Insert menu – rows, columns, worksheet, functions.  Format menu – format cells including numeric like currency as well as standard text formatting.  Tools menu – spelling protection and macros.  Data menu – Sort, filter and pivot tables.  Window and Help much as in other Windows applications.  Formatting functions are found mostly in the format menu and also on the icons on the menu line with B I U on it.

27 Spreadsheet Software Advanced functions  Goal seeking  Automatically change values until desired result achieved.  Forecasting  Calculates or predicts a future value by using existing values.  Look-up tables  Can be used to insert text in a cell depending on a value.  E.g. Grades or Pass/Fail from an exam mark.  Nested IF  Using an IF function within an IF function.  Count  Gets the number of entries in a range of cells (COUNTA for text values).  Macros  A sequence of instructions that can be used to automate a task.

28 Project Management The software  Used to help manage a project.  Planning, monitoring and control of the various activities or resources that contribute to its success. Project management  Identifying the activities that need to be carried out to complete the project.  For each activity - duration; cost; resources; employees; inter-relationships - all need to be assigned.  Activities scheduled to ensure efficiency.  Plan output as PERT or Gantt chart. Software packages  Microsoft Project; CA SuperProject and Hoskyns Project Managers Workbench.

29 Personal Information Management Personal information management software (PIM) is a type of software application designed to help users organise random bits of information. PIMs enable you to enter various kinds of textual notes such as reminders, lists and dates - and to link these bits of information together in useful ways. Many PIMs also include calendar, scheduling, and calculator programs.

30 Project Management Timelining ◦ Shows how and when a task needs to be completed before the next one starts. Resource allocation ◦ Software tools to help match up the materials, machines, people and money. ◦ Maximising profits or achieving best quality. Gant and PERTT charts ◦ Gant shows timings of each activity in a chart. ◦ PERTT shows relationship between activities. Optimisation & Critical Path Analysis ◦ A mathematical process concerned with the optimisation of time. ◦ Used for very complicated processes (managing a production line).

31 Personal Information Management (PIM) Such as Microsoft Outlook: ◦ Contacts - can be thought of as a very comprehensive address book. ◦ Calendar - lets the user keep a diary of events, meetings, appointments and activities. ◦ Task list - also called a “To-do list”. It keeps a list of all the tasks that require to be carried out and reminds the user when each task is due to be completed. ◦ Communication – . Most PIM applications support sending, receiving and management of s.

32 Evaluation of Software Range of Data Objects  Are the objects appropriate to the software?  e.g. graphics and audio files important for web design. Range of Operations  Appropriate to software – database should have good search and sort and reporting. Formatting Functions  Look at fonts, style, graphics handling, paragraphing, text wrap, numerical formats, etc. HCI  Use of keyboard commands, menus, toolbars and icons. Help and Tutorials  Most packages have on-line help and tutorials.  Often displayed as web pages but are NOT on the Internet.


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