Presentation on theme: "Migrations of Homo sapiens “Peopling of the Earth”"— Presentation transcript:
1Migrations of Homo sapiens “Peopling of the Earth” Siberia40,000 years agoEurope40,000 years agoNorth America12,000-30,000years agoSouthwest Asia100,000 years agoOceania1600 B.C.E.-500 C.E.Human Origins200, ,000years agoAustraliaas many as 60,000years agoChile12, ,000years agoPossible coastal routes of human migrationPossible landward routes of human migrationMigrations in Oceania
5The people who lived in this seaside camp: Remains discovered at Blombos Cave are one example of the more complex culture some humans were developing as many as 90,000 years ago.View looking out of Blombos Cave to the Indian OceanThe people who lived in this seaside camp:Made sharp stone spear points using methods that appeared in Eurasia only 50,000 or more years later.Made objects from bone, the earliest use of this material known.Scored bits of bone and ochre with marks that may have had symbolic meaning.Bone points from the caveOchre piece with scrapemarks. A person may havescraped the ochre toget powder to use to makebody paint.Photos: Arizona State University, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
7Farming changed the way humans lived: Neolithic RevolutionFarming changed the way humans lived:Around 8,000 B.C., the Neolithic Revolution occurred & early humans discovered how to farm & domesticate animalsPeople no longer had to be nomadsFood surpluses led to population increasesFarming villages became established along river valleys for their good soil & irrigation
8The Neolithic Revolution (9,000BCE-3,500BCE)Sometimes termed theAgricultural Revolution.Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in Southwest Asia.Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary.Populations begin to rise in areas where plant and animal domestication occurs.
9One of the major changes is reflected in this frieze on a wall in Mesopotamia (today Iraq) :animalsand plantswhich reflects the DOMESTICATION of…Of the 200,000 plant species only several hundered have been domesticated and just five supply more than half of the calories that sustain lifeOnly 14 species of large animals have been successfully domesticate4d; sheep, pigs, goats, cattle, horses most important***Idea to domesticate emerged around 9000 BCE after a cold and dry spell between 11,000 and 9500 BCE, a temporary interruption in global warming which threatened loss of wild plants and animals on which they had come to depend.Horticulture=hoe-based agriculture99
12The Neolithic Revolution To Farm or Not to Farm???
13Agriculture Slowly Spreads The Neolithic RevolutionAgriculture Slowly SpreadsHigh starch diets slowly allow sedentary populations to grow.Only .1% of plants and animals are edible,most are indigestible, poisonous, low in nutrition,tedious to prepare, difficult to gather, or dangerous to hunt.14 animals and less than .1% of all plantsare domesticable…First plow invented c.6,000BCE;crop yields grow exponentially by 4000BCE.Pop. grows from 5-8 million to million.Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out, displacing or assimilating nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization.
14Domestication of Plants and Animals FarmingPopulationIntensificationSurplus FoodSpecializationComplex Society,also known asCIVILIZATION1,000 years agoTodayBig Eras 4-9Big Era 210,000 years agoBig Era 31414
15Agriculture changed how people lived Agriculture (Farming)Agricultural SurplusPeople Settle & Pop. growsGrowth of towns, then CitiesDivision of Labor (Specialization)GovernmentSocial Stratification & Patriarchy!!Record KeepingCultural ExpressionTradeCharacteristics of Civilization
19Common Characteristics ?? Water!!River Valley Civilizations (with exception of Americas)Opportunity to adapt environmentSuitable for domesticated plants/animalsRelatively stable (a bit hot) climate
20Early River Valley Civilizations EnvironmentFlooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictableNo natural barriersLimited natural resources for making tools or buildingsMesopotamiaFlooding of the Nile predictableNile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villagesDeserts were natural barriersEgyptIndus flooding unpredictableMonsoon windsMountains, deserts were natural barriersIndus River ValleyHuang He flooding unpredictableMountains, deserts natural barriersGeographically isolated from other ancient civilizationsChinaMountains and ocean natural barriersWarm temperatures and moderate rainfallGeographically isolated from other ancient civilizationsMesoamerica & Andes
21Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished.Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River ValleysEgypt in the Nile River ValleyMohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River ValleyShang in the Yellow River or Huang He ValleyOlmecs in MesoamericaChavín in Andean South America
22The first states emerged within core civilizations. Early civilizations based around city-statesPower new states replaced city-states as main political unit.Rulers were viewed as divine.Kept power by maintaining a strong military.Competition between city-states and nomads lead to an increase in conflict!
23Examples of early empires. Mesopotamia- started as city-states (4000BC)Priests military leadersRulers viewed as representatives of godsEmpires emerged as city-states competed for power/resources.Akkad ( BCE)Sargon the Great: Built first empire c BCE.BabylonianHammurabi: King of Babylon c.1792 BCEAssyrianFierce military tacticsLibrary*** Why so much conflict in this region (Mesopotamia)?
24Sargon of Akkad: The World’s First Empire [Akkadians] (2350 BC)
25Key Civilizations in Mesopotamia Babylonian Empire ( B.C.)Most important king was HammurabiHammurabi’s Code282 laws that formed the basis of the Babylonian legal systemDifferent punishments for rich & poor“Eye for an eye”
26Egyptian Religion & Politics Pharaohs (God-Kings)Considered gods on Earth who ruled over gov’t, religion, & the militaryThis is known as a theocracy*Comparison: Mesopotamian kings were representatives of gods, but they themselves were not considered gods
27Egyptian Religion & Politics PyramidsEgyptians believed kings had eternal spirits & Built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs (resting places from which their rulers could reign forever after death)
28Shang China 1600 BC – 1027 BC Yellow / Huang He River Valley & Yangtze Mandate of Heaven- power to rule came from heavenDynastic cycle linked tothe mandate
29POLITICAL AND MILITARY STRUCTURE Pastoralists (nomadic herders) interact quite often with “urban societies”2 examples would be through new weapons and modes of transportation.Examples: Iron weapons and chariotsWhat would the effect be on “settled societies”?
30Architecture and Urban Planning Specialization, conquest, and trade promote large building projects.
31Prevalent in Mesopotamia. ZigguratsPrevalent in Mesopotamia.Usually the most prominent building in the city.Made of mud bricks.Dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city.Priests/Priestesses controlled these structures.
32Temple of Queen Hatshepsut Pyramids & MonumentsEgyptTemple of Queen Hatshepsut
34Promoted by the Elites (Political and Religious) Arts and ArtisanshipPromoted by the Elites(Political and Religious)
35Sumerian Religious Sculpture C BCEMade of marble.Roughly 30 inches tall.This is an example of a “worshipper”.Humans and gods were thought to be physically present in their statues.
36Egyptian Wall Paintings Nebamun Hunting Scene.C.1400 BCELocated in his tomb.Egyptian noble.
37Systems of Record Keeping Eventually would branch out to include other forms of “writing”.Examples:- cuneiform – Mesopotamia- hieroglyphs – Egypt- alphabets – Phoenicia
38PicturesSymbols Phonetic system CuneiformC BCE in Mesopotamia.A reed stylus was used to make “wedge-shaped” impressions on clay tablets which were then baked or dried.PicturesSymbols Phonetic system
39Legal CodesStates would eventually use writing to develop legal codes.Often reflected existing hierarchies and helped the government rule over the people.
40Read the Code of Hammurabi excerpt on p. 13 in the Duiker book. What do these points of law from the Code of Hammurabi reveal to you about Mesopotamian society?
41The Vedic religion – Indus River Valley Hebrew monotheism – Palestine New Religious BeliefsThe Vedic religion – Indus River ValleyHebrew monotheism – PalestineZoroastrianism – PersiaNew religious beliefs develop later in the period that in most cases offer a contrast to the “polytheistic” beliefs of early religions.
42Name comes from the collection of sacred texts called the Vedas. The Vedic ReligionsReligion of Aryans, an Indo-European group (pastoralists), that migrated into the Indus River Valley c.1500 BCE.Name comes from the collection of sacred texts called the Vedas.Precursor to Hinduism.
43Religion in Mesopotamian Hearth At first polytheistic, gods had human characteristicsToward the end of the period, Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion similar to Judaism emerged and will be most noted in the next period with the Persian
44Worship of “one god” is relatively new. Moses and the 10 Commandments. Hebrew MonotheismAbraham considered the “Father” of Hebrew monotheism also known as Judaism. c BCEWorship of “one god” is relatively new.Moses and the 10 Commandments.Christianity and Islam have connections to Judaism.
45Founder was Zoroaster who was born in Persia c. 660 BCE. ZoroastrianismFounder was Zoroaster who was born in Persia c. 660 BCE.Monotheistic: Ahuramazda is the only god.Dualism –* Ahuramazda=Good* Ahriman=Bad***Man has “free will” to follow who he chooses.
46TRADE: Regional and Transregional Trade begins locallyregionaltransregional.Goods, culture, and technology are all exchanged.Diffusion- the spread of ideas and goods.
47Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Harappan seals have been found in Mesopotamia which leads us to believe that the 2 regions trade goods.The Indus Valley had cotton which probably was what sparked trade between the 2 regions.
48What did they have to offer? Egypt and NubiaWhat did they have to offer?Egypt: stone dishes, painted boxes, wooden furniture, and paper.Nubia: ivory, incense and spices
50Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables Varna (Social Hierarchy)Caste SystemAryans brought Vedic religious beliefs, the foundation of HinduismBrahminsKshatriyasVaishyasShudrasPariahs [Harijan] Untouchables
51World’s first piece of literature Literature as a reflection of society.Epic of GilgameshWorld’s first piece of literature
52Indus River Valley 2500 BC – 1500 BC Harappan culture(Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa)Well planned citiesGrid patternModern plumbingBuilt on mud brick platformsProtected against seasonal floodsLarger citiesHouses built of baked brickSmaller townsHouses built of sun-dried mud brick
53Identify important continuities. REVIEWIdentify the important changes during this time period. How were early civilizations similar? Different?Identify important continuities.
54The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Key Concept 2.1The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions(Religious and Cultural Systems Transform)
55(The Roman Coliseum or Colosseum today) Religious and political authority often merged so that political rulers could keep power. Religion and belief systems could also generate conflicts.
56Monotheism and Judaism Further developed with codification of Hebrew ScripturesAssyrian, Babylonian, and Roman empires conquest Jewish StatesMore about: Assyria, Babylon, and Rome
57Vedic Religions (Hinduism) Sanskrit scriptures (epics)Caste SystemBrahma (Hindu god of creation)Reincarnation
58 ^ Buddhism spread during the Mauryan Empire ^ Confucianism was expanded, all Chinese including rulers recognized it<- Daoism=balance, influenced the development of Chinese culture (see next slide for examples)
59Daoism and the Development of Chinese Culture Moxibustion and acupunctureMedical theories and practicesPoetryMetallurgyArchitectureDao temple
60Spread of Christianity, beliefs based on teachings of Jesus Christ PlatoCore ideas of Greco-Roman philosophy and science began to change their emphasisAristotle
61Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and Confucianism emphasized filial piety (respect for parents and ancestors and bring honor to the parents by respecting others, including women)
62Shamanism and AnimismShamanism: a range of beliefs and practices regarding communication with the "spiritual world".Animism: the belief that every living thing/object has a soul, such as plants and various other inanimate natural objects
63Regions Where Ancestor Veneration Persisted AfricaThe MediterraneanEast AsiaThe Andean AreasAncestor veneration is the belief that those who die still live in other ways and are able to influence the lives of those still alive and of later generations
64Literature and Drama Greek Plays (Pictures of Greek theaters today) Tragedies or comediesIndian Epics: Mahabharata, Ramayana, Upanishads, Rig-Veda...
65Architecture India Mesoamerica (Chichen Itza) Greece Aqueduct of Segovia (Roman Empire)
66"Greco-Buddhism" Synthesis of Hellenistic/Greek cultures and Buddhism Resulted in development of unique sculptural developments
67The Development of States and Empires Key Concept 2.2The Development of States and EmpiresExpanding Boundaries, Policies, Procedures, and Politics
68Political Unity Imposed Southwest Asia: Persian EmpireEast Asia: Qin and Han DynastySouth Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires ("Ibn Batutta did not see the Gupta!")Mediterranean Region: Phoenicia and its colonies, Greek city-states and colonies, and Hellenistic (definition) and Roman EmpiresMesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Mayan city-statesAndean South America: Moche
69Persian Empires Achaemenid Parthian Sassanid BBC Video: Part 1 Part 2
70Regions with Administrative Institutions Centralized governmentsElaborate legal systems and bureaucraciesChinaPersiaRomeSouth Asia
71Imperial Governments Project Military Power DiplomacyDeveloping Supply LinesBuilding fortifications, roads, and defensive wallsDrawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from locals or conquered peoples
72Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies.
73Cities involved... Centers of trade Public performances of religious ritualsPolitical administration for states and empires
74Cities (continued) Persepolis Chang'an Istanbul ;) Pataliputra Athens CarthageRomeAlexandriaConstantinopleTeotihuacanIstanbul ;)
75HierarchiesThe social structures of empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.
76Methods to Maintain Food Production and Rewards for Loyalty SlaveryRents and tributesPeasant communitiesFamily and household productionPatriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period.
77Decline :(The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse, and transformation into successor empires or states.What are some possible factors of decline for an empire?
78Environmental Damage Deforestation Desertification Soil erosion Silted riversThrough excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites
79External ProblemsExternal problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions.Between Han China and the XiongnuBetween the Gupta and the White HunsBetween the Romans and their northern and eastern neighbors.
81By Land and Sea Eurasian Silk Roads Trans-Saharan caravan routes Indian Ocean sea lanesMediterranean sea lanes
82New Technologies Facilitated long-distance communication and exchange. Permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes.Yokes, Saddles, and StirrupsHorses, oxen, llamas, camels
83Innovations in Maritime Technologies Lateen SailDhow Ships
84Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange.
85Changes in Irrigation and Farming Techniques The qanat system
86Spread of Disease Pathogens Diminished urban populationsContributed to the decline of:The Roman EmpireThe Chinese Empire
87Religions and Cultures Spread and Transform ChristianityHinduismBuddhism
88Review ActivityCompare methods used for imperial administration for Rome, Han, Gupta, PersiaCompare/Contrast the fall of 2 of the following: Han, Rome, Gupta/MauryanCompare and contrast the rise, development and spread of Buddhism and early Christianity.Compare the Hindu caste system with other systems of inequality in the ancient worlds of Rome, Greece, or China.Compare/Contrast the effect of Confucianism versus Christianity on poltical developments in China and Rome.Discuss the political, economic, social, cultural changes and/or continuities in one of the following regions: Mediterranean, East Asia, South Asia