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1 Migrations of Homo sapiens “Peopling of the Earth” Possible coastal routes of human migration Possible landward routes of human migration Migrations.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Migrations of Homo sapiens “Peopling of the Earth” Possible coastal routes of human migration Possible landward routes of human migration Migrations."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Migrations of Homo sapiens “Peopling of the Earth” Possible coastal routes of human migration Possible landward routes of human migration Migrations in Oceania Human Origins 200, ,000 years ago Southwest Asia 100,000 years ago Europe 40,000 years ago Siberia 40,000 years ago Australia as many as 60,000 years ago North America 12,000-30,000 years ago Oceania 1600 B.C.E.-500 C.E. Chile 12,000-13,000 years ago

2 How did geography shape the migration?

3 How did the Austronesian migration differ from other early patterns of human movement?

4

5 5 Remains discovered at Blombos Cave are one example of the more complex culture some humans were developing as many as 90,000 years ago. View looking out of Blombos Cave to the Indian Ocean Bone points from the cave Ochre piece with scrape marks. A person may have scraped the ochre to get powder to use to make body paint. The people who lived in this seaside camp: Made sharp stone spear points using methods that appeared in Eurasia only 50,000 or more years later. Made objects from bone, the earliest use of this material known. Scored bits of bone and ochre with marks that may have had symbolic meaning.

6 Key Concept 1.2

7 Neolithic Revolution Around 8,000 B.C., the Neolithic Revolution occurred & early humans discovered how to farm & domesticate animals Farming changed the way humans lived: People no longer had to be nomads Food surpluses led to population increases Farming villages became established along river valleys for their good soil & irrigation

8 The Neolithic Revolution (9,000 BCE -3,500 BCE ) Sometimes termed the Agricultural Revolution. Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in Southwest Asia. Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary. Populations begin to rise in areas where plant and animal domestication occurs.

9 9 which reflects the DOMESTICATION of… and plants animals One of the major changes is reflected in this frieze on a wall in Mesopotamia (today Iraq) : Horticulture=hoe-based agriculture

10 10 Crop-growing (cultivating domesticated plants), and…

11 11 the development of… FARMING COMMUNITIES

12 To Farm or Not to Farm???

13 Agriculture Slowly Spreads

14 14 Domestication of Plants and Animals Farming Surplus Food Specialization PopulationIntensification Complex Society, also known as CIVILIZATION 1,000 years agoToday Big Eras ,000 years ago Big Era 3 Big Era 2

15 Agriculture changed how people lived Agriculture (Farming) Agricultural Surplus People Settle & Pop. grows Growth of towns, then Cities Division of Labor (Specialization) Government Social Stratification & Patriarchy!! Record Keeping Cultural Expression Trade Characteristics of Civilization

16

17 Key Concept 1.3: Core Civilizations The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies.

18 Note. 2 Exceptions to river valley pattern

19 Common Characteristics ?? Water!! River Valley Civilizations (with exception of Americas) Opportunity to adapt environment Suitable for domesticated plants/animals Relatively stable (a bit hot) climate

20 Early River Valley Civilizations Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable No natural barriers Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings Environment Mesopotamia Egypt Indus River Valley China Flooding of the Nile predictable Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages Deserts were natural barriers Indus flooding unpredictable Monsoon winds Mountains, deserts were natural barriers Huang He flooding unpredictable Mountains, deserts natural barriers Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations Mountains and ocean natural barriers Warm temperatures and moderate rainfall Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations Mesoamerica & Andes

21 Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished. Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys Egypt in the Nile River Valley Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River Valley Shang in the Yellow River or Huang He Valley Olmecs in Mesoamerica Chavín in Andean South America

22 The first states emerged within core civilizations. Early civilizations based around city-states Power new states replaced city-states as main political unit. Rulers were viewed as divine. Kept power by maintaining a strong military. Competition between city-states and nomads lead to an increase in conflict!

23 Examples of early empires. Mesopotamia- started as city- states (4000BC) Priests military leaders Rulers viewed as representatives of gods Empires emerged as city- states competed for power/resources. Akkad ( BCE) Sargon the Great: Built first empire c BCE. Babylonian Hammurabi: King of Babylon c.1792 BCE Assyrian Fierce military tactics Library *** Why so much conflict in this region (Mesopotamia)?

24 Sargon of Akkad: The World’s First Empire [Akkadians] (2350 BC)

25 Key Civilizations in Mesopotamia Babylonian Empire ( B.C.) Most important king was Hammurabi Hammurabi’s Code 282 laws that formed the basis of the Babylonian legal system Different punishments for rich & poor “Eye for an eye”

26 Egyptian Religion & Politics Pharaohs (God-Kings) Considered gods on Earth who ruled over gov’t, religion, & the military This is known as a theocracy *Comparison: Mesopotamian kings were representatives of gods, but they themselves were not considered gods

27 Egyptian Religion & Politics Pyramids Egyptians believed kings had eternal spirits & Built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs (resting places from which their rulers could reign forever after death)

28 Shang China 1600 BC – 1027 BC Yellow / Huang He River Valley & Yangtze Mandate of Heaven- power to rule came from heaven Dynastic cycle linked to the mandate the mandate

29 POLITICAL AND MILITARY STRUCTURE Pastoralists (nomadic herders) interact quite often with “urban societies” 2 examples would be through new weapons and modes of transportation. Examples: Iron weapons and chariots What would the effect be on “settled societies”?

30 Architecture and Urban Planning Specialization, conquest, and trade promote large building projects.

31 Ziggurats Prevalent in Mesopotamia. Usually the most prominent building in the city. Made of mud bricks. Dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city. Priests/Priestesses controlled these structures.

32 Pyramids & Monuments Egypt Temple of Queen Hatshepsut

33 Planned Cities: Indus Mohenjo Daro

34 Arts and Artisanship Promoted by the Elites (Political and Religious)

35 Sumerian Religious Sculpture C BCE Made of marble. Roughly 30 inches tall. This is an example of a “worshipper”. Humans and gods were thought to be physically present in their statues.

36 Egyptian Wall Paintings Nebamun Hunting Scene. C.1400 BCE Located in his tomb. Egyptian noble.

37 Systems of Record Keeping Eventually would branch out to include other forms of “writing”. Examples: - cuneiform – Mesopotamia - hieroglyphs – Egypt - alphabets – Phoenicia

38 Cuneiform C BCE in Mesopotamia. A reed stylus was used to make “wedge-shaped” impressions on clay tablets which were then baked or dried. Pictures  Symbols  Phonetic system

39 Legal Codes States would eventually use writing to develop legal codes. Often reflected existing hierarchies and helped the government rule over the people.

40 The Code of Hammurabi Read the Code of Hammurabi excerpt on p. 13 in the Duiker book. What do these points of law from the Code of Hammurabi reveal to you about Mesopotamian society?

41 New Religious Beliefs The Vedic religion – Indus River Valley Hebrew monotheism – Palestine Zoroastrianism – Persia New religious beliefs develop later in the period that in most cases offer a contrast to the “polytheistic” beliefs of early religions.

42 The Vedic Religions Religion of Aryans, an Indo- European group (pastoralists), that migrated into the Indus River Valley c.1500 BCE. Name comes from the collection of sacred texts called the Vedas. Precursor to Hinduism.

43 Religion in Mesopotamian Hearth At first polytheistic, gods had human characteristics Toward the end of the period, Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion similar to Judaism emerged and will be most noted in the next period with the Persian

44 Hebrew Monotheism Abraham considered the “Father” of Hebrew monotheism also known as Judaism. c BCE Worship of “one god” is relatively new. Moses and the 10 Commandments. Christianity and Islam have connections to Judaism.

45 Zoroastrianism Founder was Zoroaster who was born in Persia c. 660 BCE. Monotheistic: Ahuramazda is the only god. Dualism – * Ahuramazda=Good * Ahriman=Bad ***Man has “free will” to follow who he chooses.

46 TRADE: Regional and Transregional Trade begins locally  regional  transregional. Goods, culture, and technology are all exchanged. Diffusion- the spread of ideas and goods.

47 Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Harappan seals have been found in Mesopotamia which leads us to believe that the 2 regions trade goods. The Indus Valley had cotton which probably was what sparked trade between the 2 regions.

48 Egypt and Nubia What did they have to offer? Egypt: stone dishes, painted boxes, wooden furniture, and paper. Nubia: ivory, incense and spices

49 Social and Gender Hierarchies Egypt

50 Varna (Social Hierarchy) Caste System Shudras Vaishyas Kshatriyas Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables Brahmins Aryans brought Vedic religious beliefs, the foundation of Hinduism

51 Epic of Gilgamesh World’s first piece of literature Literature as a reflection of society.

52 Indus River Valley 2500 BC – 1500 BC Harappan culture (Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa) Well planned cities Grid pattern Modern plumbing Built on mud brick platforms Protected against seasonal floods Larger cities Houses built of baked brick Smaller towns Houses built of sun-dried mud brick

53 Identify the important changes during this time period. How were early civilizations similar? Different? Identify important continuities. REVIEW

54 The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions (Religious and Cultural Systems Transform) Key Concept 2.1

55 (The Roman Coliseum or Colosseum today) Religious and political authority often merged so that political rulers could keep power. Religion and belief systems could also generate conflicts.

56 Monotheism and Judaism Further developed with codification of Hebrew Scriptures Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman empires conquest Jewish States AssyrianBabylonian More about: Assyria, Babylon, and RomeAssyriaBabylonRome

57 Vedic Religions (Hinduism)Hinduism Sanskrit scriptures (epics) Caste System Brahma (Hindu god of creation) Reincarnation

58 ^ Buddhism spread during the Mauryan Empire ^ Confucianism was expanded, all Chinese including rulers recognized it <- Daoism=balance, influenced the development of Chinese culture (see next slide for examples)Daoism

59 Daoism and the Development of Chinese Culture Medical theories and practices Poetry Metallurgy Architecture Dao temple Moxibustion and acupuncture

60 Spread of Christianity, beliefs based on teachings of Jesus Christ Core ideas of Greco-Roman philosophy and science began to change their emphasisGreco Plato Aristotle

61 Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and Confucianism emphasized filial piety (respect for parents and ancestors and bring honor to the parents by respecting others, including women)

62 Shamanism and Animism Shamanism: a range of beliefs and practices regarding communication with the "spiritual world". Animism: the belief that every living thing/object has a soul, such as plants and various other inanimate natural objects

63 Regions Where Ancestor Veneration Persisted Africa The Mediterranean East Asia The Andean Areas Ancestor veneration is the belief that those who die still live in other ways and are able to influence the lives of those still alive and of later generations

64 Literature and Drama Greek Plays (Pictures of Greek theaters today) Pictures of Greek theaters today Tragedies or comedies Indian Epics: Mahabharata, Ramayana, Upanishads, Rig- Veda...Rig- Veda

65 Architecture Mesoamerica (Chichen Itza) India Greece Aqueduct of Segovia (Roman Empire)

66 "Greco-Buddhism" Synthesis of Hellenistic/Greek cultures and Buddhism Resulted in development of unique sculptural developments

67 The Development of States and Empires Expanding Boundaries, Policies, Procedures, and Politics Key Concept 2.2

68 Political Unity Imposed Southwest Asia: Persian EmpirePersian Empire East Asia: Qin and Han DynastyQinHan South Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires ("Ibn Batutta did not see the Gupta!")MauryaGupta Mediterranean Region: Phoenicia and its colonies, Greek city-states and colonies, and Hellenistic (definition) and Roman EmpiresPhoeniciadefinition Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Mayan city-states Andean South America: Moche

69 Persian Empires Achaemenid Parthian Sassanid BBC Video: Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4

70 Regions with Administrative Institutions China Persia Rome South Asia Centralized governments Elaborate legal systems and bureaucracies

71 Imperial Governments Project Military Power Diplomacy Developing Supply Lines Building fortifications, roads, and defensive walls Drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from locals or conquered peoples

72 Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies.

73 Cities involved... Centers of trade Public performances of religious rituals Political administration for states and empires

74 Cities (continued) Persepolis Chang'an Pataliputra Athens Carthage Rome Alexandria Constantinople Teotihuacan Istanbul ;)

75 Hierarchies The social structures of empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.

76 Methods to Maintain Food Production and Rewards for Loyalty Slavery Rents and tributes Peasant communities Family and household production Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period.

77 Decline :( The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse, and transformation into successor empires or states. What are some possible factors of decline for an empire?

78 Environmental Damage Deforestation Desertification Soil erosion Silted rivers Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites

79 External Problems External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions. Between Han China and the Xiongnu Between the Gupta and the White Huns Between the Romans and their northern and eastern neighbors.

80 Increase of Trade Multiple Routes, Multiple "Products" Key Concept 2.3

81 By Land and Sea Eurasian Silk Roads Trans-Saharan caravan routes Indian Ocean sea lanes Mediterranean sea lanes

82 New Technologies Facilitated long-distance communication and exchange. Permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes. Yokes, Saddles, and Stirrups Horses, oxen, llamas, camels

83 Innovations in Maritime Technologies Lateen Sail Dhow Ships Dhow

84 Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange.

85 Changes in Irrigation and Farming Techniques The qanat systemqanat

86 Spread of Disease Pathogens Diminished urban populations Contributed to the decline of: o The Roman Empire o The Chinese Empire

87 Religions and Cultures Spread and Transform Christianity Hinduism Buddhism

88 Review Activity 1. Compare methods used for imperial administration for Rome, Han, Gupta, Persia 2. Compare/Contrast the fall of 2 of the following: Han, Rome, Gupta/Mauryan 3. Compare and contrast the rise, development and spread of Buddhism and early Christianity. 4. Compare the Hindu caste system with other systems of inequality in the ancient worlds of Rome, Greece, or China. 5. Compare/Contrast the effect of Confucianism versus Christianity on poltical developments in China and Rome. 6. Discuss the political, economic, social, cultural changes and/or continuities in one of the following regions: Mediterranean, East Asia, South Asia


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