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Migrations of Homo sapiens “Peopling of the Earth”

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1 Migrations of Homo sapiens “Peopling of the Earth”
Siberia 40,000 years ago Europe 40,000 years ago North America 12,000-30,000 years ago Southwest Asia 100,000 years ago Oceania 1600 B.C.E.-500 C.E. Human Origins 200, ,000 years ago Australia as many as 60,000 years ago Chile 12, ,000 years ago Possible coastal routes of human migration Possible landward routes of human migration Migrations in Oceania

2 How did geography shape the migration?

3 How did the Austronesian migration differ from other early patterns of human movement?


5 The people who lived in this seaside camp:
Remains discovered at Blombos Cave are one example of the more complex culture some humans were developing as many as 90,000 years ago. View looking out of Blombos Cave to the Indian Ocean The people who lived in this seaside camp: Made sharp stone spear points using methods that appeared in Eurasia only 50,000 or more years later. Made objects from bone, the earliest use of this material known. Scored bits of bone and ochre with marks that may have had symbolic meaning. Bone points from the cave Ochre piece with scrape marks. A person may have scraped the ochre to get powder to use to make body paint. Photos: Arizona State University, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

6 The Neolithic Revolution
Key Concept 1.2

7 Farming changed the way humans lived:
Neolithic Revolution Farming changed the way humans lived: Around 8,000 B.C., the Neolithic Revolution occurred & early humans discovered how to farm & domesticate animals People no longer had to be nomads Food surpluses led to population increases Farming villages became established along river valleys for their good soil & irrigation

8 The Neolithic Revolution
(9,000BCE-3,500BCE) Sometimes termed the Agricultural Revolution. Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in Southwest Asia. Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary. Populations begin to rise in areas where plant and animal domestication occurs.

9 One of the major changes is reflected in this frieze on a
wall in Mesopotamia (today Iraq) : animals and plants which reflects the DOMESTICATION of… Of the 200,000 plant species only several hundered have been domesticated and just five supply more than half of the calories that sustain life Only 14 species of large animals have been successfully domesticate4d; sheep, pigs, goats, cattle, horses most important ***Idea to domesticate emerged around 9000 BCE after a cold and dry spell between 11,000 and 9500 BCE, a temporary interruption in global warming which threatened loss of wild plants and animals on which they had come to depend. Horticulture=hoe-based agriculture 9 9

10 (cultivating domesticated plants),
Crop-growing (cultivating domesticated plants), and… 10 10

11 the development of… FARMING COMMUNITIES 11 11

12 The Neolithic Revolution
To Farm or Not to Farm???

13 Agriculture Slowly Spreads
The Neolithic Revolution Agriculture Slowly Spreads High starch diets slowly allow sedentary populations to grow. Only .1% of plants and animals are edible, most are indigestible, poisonous, low in nutrition, tedious to prepare, difficult to gather, or dangerous to hunt. 14 animals and less than .1% of all plants are domesticable… First plow invented c.6,000BCE; crop yields grow exponentially by 4000BCE. Pop. grows from 5-8 million to million. Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out, displacing or assimilating nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization.

14 Domestication of Plants and Animals
Farming Population Intensification Surplus Food Specialization Complex Society, also known as CIVILIZATION 1,000 years ago Today Big Eras 4-9 Big Era 2 10,000 years ago Big Era 3 14 14

15 Agriculture changed how people lived
Agriculture (Farming) Agricultural Surplus People Settle & Pop. grows Growth of towns, then Cities Division of Labor (Specialization) Government Social Stratification & Patriarchy!! Record Keeping Cultural Expression Trade Characteristics of Civilization


17 Key Concept 1.3: Core Civilizations
The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies.

18 Note. 2 Exceptions to river valley pattern

19 Common Characteristics ??
Water!! River Valley Civilizations (with exception of Americas) Opportunity to adapt environment Suitable for domesticated plants/animals Relatively stable (a bit hot) climate

20 Early River Valley Civilizations
Environment Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable No natural barriers Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings Mesopotamia Flooding of the Nile predictable Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages Deserts were natural barriers Egypt Indus flooding unpredictable Monsoon winds Mountains, deserts were natural barriers Indus River Valley Huang He flooding unpredictable Mountains, deserts natural barriers Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations China Mountains and ocean natural barriers Warm temperatures and moderate rainfall Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations Mesoamerica & Andes

21 Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys
Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished. Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys Egypt in the Nile River Valley Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River Valley Shang in the Yellow River or Huang He Valley Olmecs in Mesoamerica Chavín in Andean South America

22 The first states emerged within core civilizations.
Early civilizations based around city-states Power new states replaced city-states as main political unit. Rulers were viewed as divine. Kept power by maintaining a strong military. Competition between city-states and nomads lead to an increase in conflict!

23 Examples of early empires.
Mesopotamia- started as city-states (4000BC) Priests military leaders Rulers viewed as representatives of gods Empires emerged as city-states competed for power/resources. Akkad ( BCE) Sargon the Great: Built first empire c BCE. Babylonian Hammurabi: King of Babylon c.1792 BCE Assyrian Fierce military tactics Library *** Why so much conflict in this region (Mesopotamia)?

24 Sargon of Akkad: The World’s First Empire [Akkadians]
(2350 BC)

25 Key Civilizations in Mesopotamia
Babylonian Empire ( B.C.) Most important king was Hammurabi Hammurabi’s Code 282 laws that formed the basis of the Babylonian legal system Different punishments for rich & poor “Eye for an eye”

26 Egyptian Religion & Politics
Pharaohs (God-Kings) Considered gods on Earth who ruled over gov’t, religion, & the military This is known as a theocracy *Comparison: Mesopotamian kings were representatives of gods, but they themselves were not considered gods

27 Egyptian Religion & Politics
Pyramids Egyptians believed kings had eternal spirits & Built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs (resting places from which their rulers could reign forever after death)

28 Shang China 1600 BC – 1027 BC Yellow / Huang He River Valley & Yangtze
Mandate of Heaven- power to rule came from heaven Dynastic cycle linked to the mandate

Pastoralists (nomadic herders) interact quite often with “urban societies” 2 examples would be through new weapons and modes of transportation. Examples: Iron weapons and chariots What would the effect be on “settled societies”?

30 Architecture and Urban Planning
Specialization, conquest, and trade promote large building projects.

31 Prevalent in Mesopotamia.
Ziggurats Prevalent in Mesopotamia. Usually the most prominent building in the city. Made of mud bricks. Dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city. Priests/Priestesses controlled these structures.

32 Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
Pyramids & Monuments Egypt Temple of Queen Hatshepsut

33 Planned Cities: Indus Mohenjo Daro

34 Promoted by the Elites (Political and Religious)
Arts and Artisanship Promoted by the Elites (Political and Religious)

35 Sumerian Religious Sculpture
C BCE Made of marble. Roughly 30 inches tall. This is an example of a “worshipper”. Humans and gods were thought to be physically present in their statues.

36 Egyptian Wall Paintings
Nebamun Hunting Scene. C.1400 BCE Located in his tomb. Egyptian noble.

37 Systems of Record Keeping
Eventually would branch out to include other forms of “writing”. Examples: - cuneiform – Mesopotamia - hieroglyphs – Egypt - alphabets – Phoenicia

38 PicturesSymbols Phonetic system
Cuneiform C BCE in Mesopotamia. A reed stylus was used to make “wedge-shaped” impressions on clay tablets which were then baked or dried. PicturesSymbols Phonetic system

39 Legal Codes States would eventually use writing to develop legal codes. Often reflected existing hierarchies and helped the government rule over the people.

40 Read the Code of Hammurabi excerpt on p. 13 in the Duiker book.
What do these points of law from the Code of Hammurabi reveal to you about Mesopotamian society?

41 The Vedic religion – Indus River Valley Hebrew monotheism – Palestine
New Religious Beliefs The Vedic religion – Indus River Valley Hebrew monotheism – Palestine Zoroastrianism – Persia New religious beliefs develop later in the period that in most cases offer a contrast to the “polytheistic” beliefs of early religions.

42 Name comes from the collection of sacred texts called the Vedas.
The Vedic Religions Religion of Aryans, an Indo-European group (pastoralists), that migrated into the Indus River Valley c.1500 BCE. Name comes from the collection of sacred texts called the Vedas. Precursor to Hinduism.

43 Religion in Mesopotamian Hearth
At first polytheistic, gods had human characteristics Toward the end of the period, Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion similar to Judaism emerged and will be most noted in the next period with the Persian

44 Worship of “one god” is relatively new. Moses and the 10 Commandments.
Hebrew Monotheism Abraham considered the “Father” of Hebrew monotheism also known as Judaism. c BCE Worship of “one god” is relatively new. Moses and the 10 Commandments. Christianity and Islam have connections to Judaism.

45 Founder was Zoroaster who was born in Persia c. 660 BCE.
Zoroastrianism Founder was Zoroaster who was born in Persia c. 660 BCE. Monotheistic: Ahuramazda is the only god. Dualism – * Ahuramazda=Good * Ahriman=Bad ***Man has “free will” to follow who he chooses.

46 TRADE: Regional and Transregional
Trade begins locallyregionaltransregional. Goods, culture, and technology are all exchanged. Diffusion- the spread of ideas and goods.

47 Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley
Harappan seals have been found in Mesopotamia which leads us to believe that the 2 regions trade goods. The Indus Valley had cotton which probably was what sparked trade between the 2 regions.

48 What did they have to offer?
Egypt and Nubia What did they have to offer? Egypt: stone dishes, painted boxes, wooden furniture, and paper. Nubia: ivory, incense and spices

49 Social and Gender Hierarchies

50 Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables
Varna (Social Hierarchy) Caste System Aryans brought Vedic religious beliefs, the foundation of Hinduism Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables

51 World’s first piece of literature
Literature as a reflection of society. Epic of Gilgamesh World’s first piece of literature

52 Indus River Valley 2500 BC – 1500 BC
Harappan culture (Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa) Well planned cities Grid pattern Modern plumbing Built on mud brick platforms Protected against seasonal floods Larger cities Houses built of baked brick Smaller towns Houses built of sun-dried mud brick

53 Identify important continuities.
REVIEW Identify the important changes during this time period. How were early civilizations similar? Different? Identify important continuities.

54 The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions
Key Concept 2.1 The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions (Religious and Cultural Systems Transform)

55 (The Roman Coliseum or Colosseum today)
Religious and political authority often merged so that political rulers could keep power.  Religion and belief systems could also generate conflicts.

56 Monotheism and Judaism 
Further developed with codification of Hebrew Scriptures Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman empires conquest Jewish States More about: Assyria, Babylon, and Rome

57 Vedic Religions (Hinduism)
Sanskrit scriptures (epics) Caste System Brahma (Hindu god of creation) Reincarnation

58   ^ Buddhism spread during the Mauryan Empire
  ^ Confucianism was expanded, all Chinese including rulers recognized it <- Daoism=balance, influenced the development of Chinese culture (see next slide for examples)

59 Daoism and the Development of Chinese Culture
Moxibustion and acupuncture Medical theories and practices Poetry Metallurgy Architecture Dao temple

60 Spread of Christianity, beliefs based on teachings of Jesus Christ
Plato Core ideas of Greco-Roman philosophy and science began to change their emphasis Aristotle

61 Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and Confucianism emphasized filial piety (respect for parents and ancestors and bring honor to the parents by respecting others, including women)

62 Shamanism and Animism Shamanism: a range of beliefs and practices regarding communication with the "spiritual world". Animism: the belief that every living thing/object has a soul, such as plants and various other inanimate natural objects

63 Regions Where Ancestor Veneration Persisted
Africa The Mediterranean East Asia The Andean Areas Ancestor veneration is the belief that those who die still live in other ways and are able to influence the lives of those still alive and of later generations

64 Literature and Drama Greek Plays (Pictures of Greek theaters today)
Tragedies or comedies Indian Epics: Mahabharata, Ramayana, Upanishads, Rig-Veda...

65 Architecture India Mesoamerica (Chichen Itza) Greece
Aqueduct of Segovia (Roman Empire)

66 "Greco-Buddhism" Synthesis of Hellenistic/Greek cultures and Buddhism
Resulted in development of unique sculptural developments

67 The Development of States and Empires
Key Concept 2.2 The Development of States and Empires Expanding Boundaries, Policies, Procedures, and Politics

68 Political Unity Imposed
Southwest Asia: Persian Empire East Asia: Qin and Han Dynasty South Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires ("Ibn Batutta did not see the Gupta!") Mediterranean Region: Phoenicia and its colonies, Greek city-states and colonies, and Hellenistic (definition) and Roman Empires Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Mayan city-states Andean South America: Moche

69 Persian Empires Achaemenid Parthian Sassanid BBC Video: Part 1 Part 2

70 Regions with Administrative Institutions
Centralized governments Elaborate legal systems and bureaucracies China Persia Rome South Asia

71 Imperial Governments Project Military Power
Diplomacy Developing Supply Lines Building fortifications, roads, and defensive walls Drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from locals or conquered peoples

72 Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies.

73 Cities involved... Centers of trade
Public performances of religious rituals Political administration for states and empires

74 Cities (continued) Persepolis Chang'an Istanbul ;) Pataliputra Athens
Carthage Rome Alexandria Constantinople Teotihuacan Istanbul ;)

75 Hierarchies The social structures of empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.

76 Methods to Maintain Food Production and Rewards for Loyalty
Slavery Rents and tributes Peasant communities Family and household production Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period.

77 Decline :( The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse, and transformation into successor empires or states. What are some possible factors of decline for an empire?

78 Environmental Damage Deforestation Desertification Soil erosion
Silted rivers Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites

79 External Problems External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions. Between Han China and the Xiongnu Between the Gupta and the White Huns Between the Romans and their northern and eastern neighbors.

80 Multiple Routes, Multiple "Products"
Key Concept 2.3 Increase of Trade Multiple Routes, Multiple "Products"

81 By Land and Sea Eurasian Silk Roads Trans-Saharan caravan routes
Indian Ocean sea lanes Mediterranean sea lanes

82 New Technologies Facilitated long-distance communication and exchange.
Permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes. Yokes, Saddles, and Stirrups Horses, oxen, llamas, camels

83 Innovations in Maritime Technologies
Lateen Sail Dhow Ships

84 Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange.

85 Changes in Irrigation and Farming Techniques
The qanat system

86 Spread of Disease Pathogens
Diminished urban populations Contributed to the decline of: The Roman Empire The Chinese Empire

87 Religions and Cultures Spread and Transform
Christianity Hinduism Buddhism

88 Review Activity Compare methods used for imperial administration for Rome, Han, Gupta, Persia Compare/Contrast the fall of 2 of the following: Han, Rome, Gupta/Mauryan Compare and contrast the rise, development and spread of Buddhism and early Christianity. Compare the Hindu caste system with other systems of inequality in the ancient worlds of Rome, Greece, or China. Compare/Contrast the effect of Confucianism versus Christianity on poltical developments in China and Rome. Discuss the political, economic, social, cultural changes and/or continuities in one of the following regions: Mediterranean, East Asia, South Asia

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