Presentation on theme: "Ancient Societies. Agricultural Revolution Changed the way people lived – People stayed in one place – Extra food resources allowed people to do other."— Presentation transcript:
Agricultural Revolution Changed the way people lived – People stayed in one place – Extra food resources allowed people to do other things – Allowed people to specialize in certain jobs (craftsmen, warriors, kings, etc.)
Discussion: What does it mean to be “Civilized?” Are we civilized today?
Civilization 6 Characteristics: – 1. Based around cities – 2. Agricultural Surplus: Specialization of Labor – 3. Government: Complex Institutions – 4. Social Hierarchy: Usually centered around wealth – 5. Written records – 6. More Complex forms of Economics: more reliance on trade
Ethnic Groups Must share certain characteristics: – Same race – Same religion – Same language – Same place of origin (political nation) – Same region of world (geographic area) – (must have at least 4 out of 5 of the characteristics)
Example: Jewish Nation Share 4 out of 5 of the characteristics. Which characteristic does the Jewish Nation not share?
River Valleys First Civilizations Most fertile soil Easier to defend Smaller rivers made easier for irrigation – Mesopotamia – Ancient Egypt – Ancient India – Ancient China – Mesoamerica – Andes Region
Mesopotamia Greek for “Land Between two rivers” Modern day Iraq and Syria “Fertile Crescent”
Government Series of city-states in Mesopotamia – Sumerians (c. 3500 BCE) Priest-kings ruled (kings had voice of gods) City-States become Empires – Akkadians (2334-2218 BCE) Formal legal codes: – Code of Hammurabi (1800 BCE)
Religion 3,000 gods Unusually mean gods Based on nature in Fertile Crescent Goal: Appease gods to control nature Art and Literature focused on gods – Epic of Gilgamesh – Contains story of flood Built ziggurats
Government Dynasties with Emperor Mandate of Heaven—Rulers are chose to rule by heaven and will continue to rule as long as heaven is pleased; if heaven is not pleased, heaven will pass the mandate to another family
Norte Chico 3000-1800 BCE in Peru Polytheistic Famous for monumental architecture and weaving No evidence of any art or ceramics Used quipu for record keeping
Legacy of Ancient Civilizations Writing systems, religions, and technology was influenced the development of new civilizations and cultures Ancient civilizations decline by 1000 BCE Subject to nomadic invasions Political and cultural centers shift to new geographical areas (except China)
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