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POISONING, DRUG & MEDICATION ABUSE. 2 Types of Poisoning  Ingested Poisons Orally (swallowed)  Inhaled Poisons Respiratory system (breathed in) Most.

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Presentation on theme: "POISONING, DRUG & MEDICATION ABUSE. 2 Types of Poisoning  Ingested Poisons Orally (swallowed)  Inhaled Poisons Respiratory system (breathed in) Most."— Presentation transcript:


2 2 Types of Poisoning  Ingested Poisons Orally (swallowed)  Inhaled Poisons Respiratory system (breathed in) Most common cases - carbon monoxide poisoning  Injected Poisons Break in the skin  Absorption (Surface Contact) Poisons Through the skin, often with no visible sign of entry

3 3 Danger of Further Injury  Poison may enter your body the same way it entered your patient's body  Especially true in cases of absorption or inhalation poisoning  Always attempt to establish the nature of the poisoning agent before taking action that could endanger yourself or others

4 4 Common Examples  Pesticides  Herbicides  Gaseous compounds  Medicines  Household cleaning products  Plants  Paints  Burning plastics  Specific poisons  Perfumes  Food

5 5 Signs and Symptoms  Nausea  Vomiting  Abdominal pain  Constriction or dilation of pupils,  Excessive salivation  Excessive sweating  Abnormal respirations or pulse  Loss of consciousness  Convulsions

6 6 Poison Control Centre  What is the poisoning agent?  How much was taken?  The mechanism of poisoning?  The patient’s vital signs?  Was the poison: ingested, inhaled, injected, or absorbed through the skin?  How long ago was the poison taken?  What is the present status of the patient?

7 7 Poison Control Centre - 911  Alberta 1-800-332-1414  British Columbia 1-800-567-8911  Manitoba 911  New Brunswick 911  Newfoundland (709) 722-1110  Northwest Territories (867) 669-4100  Nova Scotia 1-800-565-8161  Ontario 1-800-268-9017  PEI 1-800-565-8161  Quebec 1-800-463-5060  Saskatchewan 1-866-454-1212  Yukon (867) 393-8700

8 8 General Treatment - Unresponsive  Do not give fluids or induce vomiting  Check vital signs  If vitals signs are normal or stable Determine the poisoning agent Call the Poison Control Centre Monitor the vital signs frequently Transport as a Load and Go  If ABC are compromised Perform AR or CPR (with appropriate barrier device)  Collect any vomitus and any containers that may have held the suspected poisoning agent with the patient

9 9 General Treatment - Responsive  Check vital signs  Determine the poisoning agent  Call the Poison Control Centre  If directed, induce vomiting  Monitor the vital signs frequently  Transport as a Load & Go  Collect any vomitus and any containers that may have held the suspected poisoning agent with the patient

10 10 Ingested Poison  Induce vomiting only if directed by the Poison Control Centre  Do not induce vomiting if: The patient is unresponsive or convulsing The poison is a known corrosive agent such as: acid, lye, drain cleaner, or if it has caused burns to the lips, mouth or throat. a poison that contains petroleum distillates

11 11 Inhaled Poisons  Additional signs and symptoms: Respiratory distress Coughing Pain and burning in the throat Pain in the chest Cyanosis

12 12 Treatment  Remove the patient from the contaminated atmosphere  Check and monitor vital signs  Ensure that the airway, breathing and circulation are maintained  Initiate AR/CPR as necessary  Administer oxygen, if available  Identify the poisoning agent  Contact the Poison Control Centre and follow their instructions  Transport to medical aid If the environment is unsafe, do not intervene, call the EMS and inform them of the situation

13 13 Injected Poisons  Signs and symptoms Confusion Disorientation Delusions Pain Tenderness/swelling at the site of entry Unresponsive Diminished function or failure of the respiratory or circulatory systems

14 14 Treatment  If swelling is apparent, remove all rings, watches and jewellery from the affected limbs  Apply a constriction band  Check, maintain and monitor vital signs  Identify the poisoning agent  Call the Poison Control Centre and follow the directions  Transport the patient to medical aid

15 15 Pressure Immobilization Bandage  is a tourniquet-like (venous tourniquet) device  applied proximally (closer to the heart) to the injured or poisoned region of an extremity.

16 Pressure Immobilization Bandage  A pressure immobilization bandage must: completely encircle the extremity be narrow enough to impede circulation be wide enough that the skin is not damaged  Impedes circulation sufficiently to impede venous return to the heart, but not to completely eliminate arterial supply  Peripheral pulse should still be palpable 16

17 17 Absorbed Poison  Common absorption poisons include: Pesticides Herbicides Corrosives Acids Alkalis Some petroleum distillates

18 18 Signs and Symptoms  Nausea  Sweating  Skin irritation  Burns  Abdominal and substernal tightness  Abdominal cramps  Profuse salivation  Respiratory distress  Muscle twitching  Seizures  Paralysis

19 19 Treatment  Protect yourself from skin contamination  Remove the agent from continued skin contact by: Removing any contaminated clothing from the patient If substance is not reactive to water, wash the area including directing a stream of water If the poison is solid or in granular form, remove as much of it as possible by brushing before washing with water  Identify the poison  Call the Poison Control Centre and follow the directions given  Transport the patient to medical aid

20 20 Insect Stings  Stings from insects such as bees, wasps, and hornets are prevalent particularly during the warmer months and are more common among children  The body reacts to insect stings on two different levels, local and systemic

21 21 Reaction to stings Local  Pain  Redness  Itching  Swelling Systemic  Breathing difficulty  Swelling around throat  Skin welts or hives  General itching  Weakness  Headache  Abdominal pain  Anxiety  Restlessness

22 22 Treatment Local  For bee stings: scrape surface to remove stinger and venom sack  Apply ice Systemic  Monitor and be prepared to provide critical intervention  Scrape surface to remove stinger and venom sack  Apply ice to the area  If possible, collect insect for identification  Transport to next level of EMS

23 23 Snake Bite  North American poisonous snakes : Coral Snakes Rattlesnakes Copperheads Water Moccasins  The venom of rattlesnakes, copperheads and water moccasins alters normal characteristics of blood, particularly its ability to clot  Coral snake's venom affects the nervous system

24 24 Signs and Symptoms  Bleeding under the skin and purplish discolouration after several hours  Blood blisters  Sweating  Vomiting  Rapid pulse  Limb numbness  Weakness  Faintness  Low blood pressure  Severe burning pain and immediate swelling at the bite site, increasing over the next six-to-eight hours If no swelling has occurred after one hour, injection of venom is unlikely to have occurred

25 25 Treatment  Calm and reassure the patient  Have them lie down and keep them quiet throughout transportation to hospital  Do not give them any alcohol  Rings, watches and constricting clothing should be removed  Clean the bite site with soap and water or an antiseptic solution, if available

26 Treatment  Locate the fang marks and place a pressure immobilization bandage around the entire length of the bitten extremity  Immobilize the extremity in a splint to reduce circulation in the limb  Check and monitor vital signs  Ensure that the ABCs are maintained 26

27 27 Treatment  Under no circumstances should an ice pack or cold pack be applied to the area. Some types of snake venom are activated by cold  Transport to medical aid  If possible, advise the medical facility prior to the patient's arrival in order that anti-venom may be awaiting them

28 28 Drug Abuse  Drug any chemical that modifies the function of living tissues resulting in physiological or behavioural changes  Drug use usage of therapeutic or non-therapeutic substances to produce a desired effect with minimum hazard  Drug abuse whenever drugs are taken or administered under circumstances and at doses that significantly increase their hazard potential

29 29 Commonly Abused Drugs  Tranquilizers  Antidepressants  Analgesics  Alcohol  Prescription medication  Solvents

30 30 Alcohol - Signs and Symptoms  Breath odour  Nausea  Vomiting  Lack of coordination  Slurred of speech  Emotional instability  Loss of inhibitions  Aggressive, violent behaviour and abusive language  Deep respiration  Facial flushing  Dilated pupils

31 31 Solvents - Signs and Symptoms  Characteristic strong odour of glue or of other chemicals  Symptoms of intoxication similar to alcohol  Euphoria  Uncoordinated gait  Slurred speech

32 32 Barbiturates - Signs and Symptoms  Decreased blood pressure  Decreased respiration rate  Slurred speech  Involuntary horizontal eye movement  Lack of physical coordination  Absence of alcohol odour

33 33 Narcotics-Signs and Symptoms  Nausea  Vomiting  Constricted pupils  Constipation  Decreased respiration rate  Unresponsiveness to pain  Lethargy  Numerous injection sites along veins of the arms or legs

34 34 Stimulants - Signs and Symptoms  Dilated pupils  Loss of appetite  Over- or hyperactivity  Rapid speech  Belligerence  Suspiciousness  Confusion  Rapid and strong pulse  Shallow respiration  Dry mouth  Profuse perspiration

35 35 Cannabis - Signs and Symptoms  Intoxication and euphoria without drastic change in judgement or gait  Reddening of the eyes  Increased pulse rate  Unusual hilarity  Increased appetite

36 36 Hallucinogens - Signs and Symptoms  Markedly-dilated pupils  Unusual hilarity  Emotional swings  Suspiciousness  Bizarre behaviour  Nausea and vomiting  Increased pulse rate and blood pressure,  Sweating  Anxiety

37 37 Treatment - Conscious  Introduce yourself; attempt to carry on a conversation  Attempt to establish their current state of mind  If possible, attempt to "talk them down" and place them in a quiet, dimly lit room  Try to establish the causative drug for the patient's current state  Be aware of sudden changes in personality or behaviour  Transport to medical aid

38 38 Treatment - Unconscious  Establish the presence of vital signs  Maintain and monitor vital signs  Question bystanders and/or search the surroundings to establish the patient's past medical and drug history  Transport the patient to medical aid  Transport any findings to hospital with the person

39 39 Assume the Worst  Never assume that any altered level of consciousness or personality changes are the result of drug ingestion  Treat as per any other casualty with an altered level of consciousness

40 40 Remember  Further danger  Protect yourself and others from the poison  Use barrier devices  Control / avoid the source of the poison

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