8 Benefits of Mechanical Meters Proven TechnologyWidely Accepted and Trusted in the IndustryTechnology has Evolved and Improved Over more than 100 YearsSeveral Types Can Be Rebuilt ‐ Extending their Useful Life
9 Disadvantages of Mechanical Meters Moving parts – Wear and TearRegular re-calibration is required (5years)Maintenance Is RequiredProne to Tamping, i.e., magnetic tampering on registerParticulates in Water Can Cause ProblemsCalcium in Water Can Cause ProblemsSignificant Pressure LossCorrect Sizing is Very Important
10 The following slides are for Low Flow analysis Inherent Low Flow Performance LimitationsAccuracy Relies on Close Tolerances that are Subject to WearAccuracy Degrading Over TimeThe following slides are for Low Flow analysis
11 ¾” Mechanical Meter Accuracy at Low Flow Poor Low Flow Performance!Source: Apparent Losses Caused By Meter Inaccuracies at Ultralow Flows, Richards et.al, AWWA Journal, June 2010
12 Implications for Water Conservation • You Can’t Count What You Can’t Measure • Even the Best AMI System Can’t Detect Leaks Below a Meter’s Lowest Flow Sensitivity • A Leak of 0.05 GPM (1/20th GPM) amounts to 39 Teaspoons, or about 0.8 Cups per Minute • This is Not Just a “Drip” Every Few Minutes
13 Slow Leak, Big Loss0.05 GPM is 2,160 Gallons over 30 Days, or 25,920 Gallons per Year from ONE meter • Across 10,000 Meters, this could amount to 259,200,000 Gallons per Year (795 Acre Feet) • How Many Meters Have Leaks at or Below 0.05 GPM? WE DON’T REALLY KNOW BECAUSE THE MECHANICAL METERS CANNOT MEASURE THESE FLOWS – EVEN WHEN NEW!
14 What We Are Sure• AWWA States That 16% of a Meter’s Usage Occurs at Low Flows (Less Than 1 GPM) • Mechanical Meters Measure Only A Small Percentage of Flow Below 1/4 GPM – Even When New • [Unmeasured Flow] Results in Significant Revenue Loss for the UtilitySource: Apparent Losses Caused By Meter Inaccuracies at Ultralow Flows, Richards et.al, AWWA Journal, June 2010
15 Sources of Non‐Revenue Water AWWA Standard Water Balance
16 Apparent Losses From Meters Based on test studies of anonymous water utilities, typical average customer meter under registration is about 5 to 6 percent.Graph Source: Apparent Losses Caused By Meter Inaccuracies at Ultralow Flows, Richards et.al, AWWA Journal, June 2010
17 Apparent Losses From Meters Based on test studies of anonymous water utilities, typical average customer meter under registration is about 5 to 6 percent.Graph Source: Apparent Losses Caused By Meter Inaccuracies at Ultralow Flows, Richards et.al, AWWA Journal, June 2010
18 Agenda Mechanical Water Meters Ultrasonic Water Meters TypesPerformance LimitationsEffects of WearUltrasonic Water MetersBenefitsTechnologyApplicationsQuestions and Answers
19 How Does Ultrasonic Water Meter Work - Based on Transit-time TechnologyThis technology is similar to the following:All of our ultrasonic water meters are based on transit-time technology. This technology is proven to be the best choice for accurate and reliable flow measurement.The working principle of a ultrasonic water meter is very simple. It is similar to the case that two boats from the opposite banks traveling across a river. When the water in river does not move, the two boats take the same amount of time arriving to the opposite bank. However, if the water flows, the boat traveling against the flow will spend more time to reach its opposite bank than the one traveling along the flow. The travel time difference is directly related to the water flow velocity. The bigger the travel time difference the bigger the velocity.The boat traveling against flow takes longer time to reach to its opposite bank than the one travels along the flow.Travel time difference is directly related to river flow velocity.
20 Each transducer sends a sound pulse towards the other. To measure flow in a pipe, a pair of ultrasonic transducers are installed:DEach transducer sends a sound pulse towards the other.The pulse traveling downstream takes less time than the one travelling upstream.The travel time difference of the two pulses are proportional to the flowrate:Similarly, two transducers are installed on the opposite side of a pipe. One on the upstream, another on the downstream. They send sound pulses towards each other.The sound pulse traveling downstream e.g., along the flow, travels faster than the one traveling upstream. Thus, its transit-time is smaller than the upstream pulse. The transit-time difference is directly proportional to flow velocity.The electronic console uses advanced digital signal processing technology to accurately measure the transit-time difference. It then derives the flow velocity from the transit-time difference together with flow dynamics formula. Accordingly, the flow rate is computed by multiplying the velocity with pipe cross-section area.Q ~ Tup-Tdn
21 Reflector-Based Sensor for High Sensitivity For Small Size Pipe:Reflector-Based Sensor for High SensitivityV > 0With flow, red pulse travels faster than green pulse, thus, takes less time to complete the trip.The travel time difference is proportional to flowrare
22 Patented Sensor design boosts system performance: Convex reflector surface reduces risk of particle deposition.Internal design absorbs multi-mode reflection.Spire Metering uses its patented sensor technology for this product.The ultrasonic sensor is optimized so to provide pure and strong ultrasonic signal. Multimode interference is reduced to minimum.A pure and strong ultrasonic signal increases measurement accuracy and stability.Pure/strong signal is obtained.Guarantees increased accuracy and stability.
23 ULTRASONIC COLD WATER METER SmartDigitalNSF61-G approvedCutting-Edge TechnologyDesigned for the FutureIdea for submeteringNo moving parts to wear and tear.Low-lead brass body, robustMaintenance-free/no annual calibration required.Leakage detection and alarmTamper-proof design.No air inside of the meter. Thus, no humidity or condensed water to blur the displayNo moving parts to wear and tear.Maintenance-free. No annual calibration required.Tamper-proof design.
24 ULTRASONIC COLD WATER METER SmartDigitalNSF61-G approvedCutting-Edge TechnologyDesigned for the FutureIdea for residential meteringBuilt-in RFMeet AWWA C700 standardNo moving parts to wear and tear.Maintenance-free. No annual calibration required.Tamper-proof design.
25 Leakage Detection In Residential Property Each domestic meter is able to detect small water leakage.When leakage is detected, water meter sends alarm to data center promptly.Spire’s Ultrasonic Water Meter is designed for this!Count each drop
26 More ADVANTAGES … Wide dynamic range Pipe burst detection and alarm A lifetime of accuracy so the tenant pays for what they consumes. TLow pressure drop. Saves pumping cost.Smart interface ready for automatic meter reading (AMR/AMI)
27 Comparison – ¾” Meter Accuracy at Low Flow Ultrasonic Water Meter Offers High Accuracy Over Wide Range, Even at Low Flow!Graph Source: Apparent Losses Caused By Meter Inaccuracies at Ultralow Flows, Richards et.al, AWWA Journal, June 2010
30 Comparison – Dynamic Range Mechanical (AMCO C700)Ultrasonic (Spire 280W-D)¾”1202001”100In fact, ultrasonic water meter has much larger dynamic range than shown in its spec.
31 Comparison – Longevity Ultrasonic Water Meter Is Accurate Even 20 Years Later!
32 Ultrasonic Water Meter Can Detect Small Leakage! LEAKAGE DETECTIONUltrasonic Water Meter Can Detect Small Leakage!Similar technology with cold water meter, but designed for hot water.
33 Utah Water Research Laboratory Study “Reduction of apparent losses caused by meter inaccuracies at low flows can result in substantial increases in revenue for a utility.”“Additionally, increased meter accuracy will allow for more equitable billing of customers.”Richards, Johnson and Barfuss; Utah Water Research Laboratory33
34 Conservation and Revenue Ultrasonic Technology Offers a Win‐Win for Utilities, Consumers, and the Environment.They Can Reduce Apparent Losses From Meters, Allowing Utilities to Bill for More of the Water Actually DeliveredThey Can Help Eliminate the Smallest LeaksThey Can Pay for Themselves in a Few YearsThey Deliver More Information Than Ever BeforeEnvironmentally Friendly Composition34
35 Conservation and Revenue Ultrasonic Technology Offers a Win‐Win for Utilities, Consumers, and the Environment.They Can Reduce Apparent Losses From Meters, Allowing Utilities to Bill for More of the Water Actually DeliveredThey Can Help Eliminate the Smallest LeaksThey Can Pay for Themselves in a Few YearsThey Deliver More Information Than Ever BeforeEnvironmentally Friendly Composition35
36 AMR/AMI ReadyUltrasonic Water Meter Has Built-in AMR/AMI Feature. Easy for AMR/AMI Integration.This is a typical topology of a fixed wireless AMI network.Wireless Concentrator reads data from endpoints using wireless M-Bus protocol.Wireless Concentrator sends data to data center through GSM/GPRS wireless network.It also saves data to its large non-volatile memory.Data center AMR software collects automatically.Billing software makes the billing process easy and efficient36
37 Conclusions Mechanical Meters Are Still a Viable Solution – They Have Served Us Well for Over 100 YearsNew Technologies Available Today Offer Compelling Financial and Ecological BenefitsThey Compliment AMI System Deployments but Offer Many Benefits Independent of AMIUtilities Should Explore and Understand the Potential of These Meter Technologies37
38 Agenda Mechanical Water Meters Ultrasonic Water Meters TypesPerformance LimitationsEffects of WearUltrasonic Water MetersBenefitsTechnologyApplicationsQuestions and Answers
39 … A Global Leader in Flow & Energy Management Solutions … THANK YOU!Located just outside Boston near cutting edge technology companies.Leaders in design, development, and production of flowmeters, water meters, BTU meters, and AMR/AMI systems.Supplier to Siemens, Honeywell, JCI, NASA, GE, and more!Massachusetts, USA… A Global Leader in Flow & Energy Management Solutions …
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