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For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 1 POWER AND CONTROL Lecture 17
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 2 Power, influence and authority Pfeffer (1992) - power - ‘the potential ability to influence behaviour, to change the course of events, to overcome resistance, and to get people to do things that they would not otherwise do’ There are many positions in an organization that do not have any formal authority yet the individuals are able to exercise considerable influence Authority has been described as the legitimate expression of power (Handy, 1993) Chester Barnard - authority - ‘The character of communication in a formal organization by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to or member of the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is, as governing or determining what he does or is not to do so far as the organization is concerned’
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 3 Traditional perspectives on power Existence of three features: Humans with needs, wants and desires that can only be met through individual engaging with the organization The existence of resources through which these needs and wants can be met The existence of a manager who is prepared to act as a go-between in facilitating the deal between the individual and the organization and subsequently managing its realization in practice Power is a commodity Lower level employees can also gain and exercise power in a number of ways
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 4 Foucault and power Power is a condition that exists in society as a whole Power in this context uses discourse to create the rules which in turn creates and classifies the knowledge available in particular ways Allows the hierarchical framework to be perpetuated as legitimate Boundaries - artificial and socially created Attention diverted Socialization
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 5 Labour process theory and Lukes’ view on power Labour process theory: originated from the Marxist tradition - ‘the means by which raw materials are transformed by human labour, acting on the objects with tools and machinery first into products for use and, under capitalism, into commodities to be exchanged on the market’ Lukes (1982) - three dimensional model: First dimension - reflects the nature of power as described in literature Second dimension - the agenda Third dimension - concepts of hegemony, incorporation, dependency and inaction underpin authority Manufacture of consent
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 6 Sources of organizational power French and Raven (1968) and Raven (1993) - sources of power within a social context: Coercive power Reward power Legitimate power Expert power Referent power Handy (1993) - a sixth form of power: Negative power Information as power
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 7 Power and decision making Pfeffer (1992) - three aspects of decision making that provide power: Decisions change nothing Decision quality requires retrospective assessment Significance duration
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 8 Control within organizations Two opposite aspects to existence of control: Basis of order and predictability in operational activity Control is restrictive, lacks flexibility, is manipulative and greedy with regard to abolition of personal freedom Huczynski and Buchanan (1991) control has a number of connotations: Physical Economic Psychological Political
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 9 Form and characteristics of control Forms of control: Output control Process control Work design Structure Hierarchy and authority Skill Technology Social control Clegg and Dunkerley (1980) – Vicious cycle of control – the downward spiral of tighter control leading to negative employee behaviours leading to tighter control
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 10 Power, control and resistance Resistance to the exercise of power is not new Braverman (1974) - the reaction of workers to the degradation of work forced upon them would ‘continue as a subterranean stream that makes its way to the surface when employment conditions permit, or when the capitalist drive for greater intensity of labour oversteps the bounds of physical and mental capacity’ Managers can resist the attempts of senior managers to direct events because their objectives can differ
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 11 Power and control: an applied perspective Etzioni (1975) categorization of power: Normative Utilitarian Coercive Three caveats to the use of power in an organization: Balance Domain Relativity Kotter (1977) - characteristics shared by managers who are able to use and manage power effectively: Sensitivity Intuitive Repertoire Career Investment Maturity
For use with MARTIN, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT 3e ISBN Copyright © 2005 Cengage Learning 12 Power and control: an applied perspective Courpasson and Dany (2003) suggest that different forms of power are emerging because of short-term employment. What they term – moral obedience. Control through discipline – various levels: Managerial discipline Team discipline Self-discipline
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