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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 GROUPS AND TEAMS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Definition of a group Various definitions but all imply:
More than one person involved Interaction must take place Purpose or intention Awareness

3 Groups Groups - social entities of two or more people who interact with each other, are psychologically aware of each other, and think of themselves as a group Formal groups are typically set up and sanctioned by the organization, and thus have specific objectives that contribute to achieving organizational goals Informal groups are groups that form through interactions among organizational members

4 Groups and teams Katenbach & Smith suggest that difference between group and team is that of performance and describe the following scale: Working group Pseudo-teams Potential teams Real teams High performance teams

5 Groups, teams and organizations
Hierarchical differentiation Specialism groupings Activity groupings Boundary spanning Professional

6 Likert’s linking pin model
Figure 7.1

7 The hierarchy/customer conflict model
Figure 7.2

Synergy Social control Social facilitation Potential problems include: Social inhibition Social loafing Sucker effect

9 Cultural and other factors in informal group formation
The need for human beings to function in a social environment and to form relationships of their own choosing The voluntary nature of many informal groups offsets the involuntary nature of many formal, organizational groups The approach adopted by managers to the running of the organization The need for individuals to exert influence and to achieve their formal and personal goals

10 Tuckman and Jensen’s model of group development
Stage 1 – Forming Stage 2 – Storming Stage 3 – Norming Stage 4 – Performing Stage 5 - Adjourning

11 Issues associated with Tuckman’s first four stages of group development
Figure 7.3

12 Recent group development model
Based on: Gibson & Earley, 2007; Gibson et al., 2009: information accumulation (perception and storing of information) interaction (retrieving, exchanging, and interactively structuring information) examination (meaning is socially negotiated and evaluated) accommodation (members integrate information, make decisions and take action)

13 Communication patterns in groups
Figure 7.4

14 The nine Belbin team roles
Plant: Creative, imaginative, unorthodox. Solves difficult problems Resource investigator: Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities. Develops contacts Co-ordinator: Mature, confident, a good chairperson. Clarifies goals, promotes decision making, delegates well Shaper: Challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure. Has the drive and courage to overcome obstacles Monitor/evaluator: Sober, strategic and discerning. Sees all options. Judges accurately Teamworker: Co-operative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic. Listens, builds, averts friction, calms the waters Implementer: Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient. Turns ideas into practical actions Completer: Painstaking, conscientious, anxious. Searches out errors and omissions. Delivers on time Specialist: Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Provides knowledge and skills in rare supply.

15 Features of effective and ineffective groups

Rules - explicit informal agreements or formal statements about acceptable and unacceptable behaviour Norms - implicit and informal expectations for behaviour within social entities Expected role – what the organization expects the individual to do in relation to their role Perceived role – what the individual understands their expected role to be Enacted role - reflects what the individual actually does in carrying out the tasks for which they are responsible

17 Manifestation of team processes in action and transition phases
Figure 7.5

18 Group process dimensions
Table 7.5

19 The components of the role theory - Handy (1993)
Role set Role definition Role ambiguity Role incompatibility Role conflict Role overload/underload Role stress

20 Role set for a university lecturer
Figure 7.6

21 GROUP COHESION Factors which contribute to the level of cohesion developed within a group include: Environmental factors Organizational factors Group factors Individual factors

22 GROUP COHESION Figure 7.7

23 Relationship between group cohesion and group performance
Figure 7.8

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