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For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz 1408018128© 2010 Cengage Learning GROUPS AND TEAMS Chapter 7.

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Presentation on theme: "For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz 1408018128© 2010 Cengage Learning GROUPS AND TEAMS Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning GROUPS AND TEAMS Chapter 7

2 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Definition of a group Various definitions but all imply: More than one person involved Interaction must take place Purpose or intention Awareness

3 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Groups Groups - social entities of two or more people who interact with each other, are psychologically aware of each other, and think of themselves as a group Formal groups are typically set up and sanctioned by the organization, and thus have specific objectives that contribute to achieving organizational goals Informal groups are groups that form through interactions among organizational members

4 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Groups and teams Katenbach & Smith suggest that difference between group and team is that of performance and describe the following scale: –Working group –Pseudo-teams –Potential teams –Real teams –High performance teams

5 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Groups, teams and organizations Hierarchical differentiation Specialism groupings Activity groupings Boundary spanning Professional

6 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Likert’s linking pin model Figure 7.1

7 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning The hierarchy/customer conflict model Figure 7.2

8 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning WHY DO ORGANIZATIONS USE GROUPS? Synergy Social control Social facilitation Potential problems include: Social inhibition Social loafing Sucker effect

9 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Cultural and other factors in informal group formation The need for human beings to function in a social environment and to form relationships of their own choosing The voluntary nature of many informal groups offsets the involuntary nature of many formal, organizational groups The approach adopted by managers to the running of the organization The need for individuals to exert influence and to achieve their formal and personal goals

10 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Tuckman and Jensen’s model of group development Stage 1 – Forming Stage 2 – Storming Stage 3 – Norming Stage 4 – Performing Stage 5 - Adjourning

11 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Issues associated with Tuckman’s first four stages of group development Figure 7.3

12 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Recent group development model Based on: Gibson & Earley, 2007; Gibson et al., 2009: information accumulation (perception and storing of information) interaction (retrieving, exchanging, and interactively structuring information) examination (meaning is socially negotiated and evaluated) accommodation (members integrate information, make decisions and take action)

13 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Communication patterns in groups Figure 7.4

14 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning The nine Belbin team roles Plant: Creative, imaginative, unorthodox. Solves difficult problems Resource investigator: Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities. Develops contacts Co-ordinator: Mature, confident, a good chairperson. Clarifies goals, promotes decision making, delegates well Shaper: Challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure. Has the drive and courage to overcome obstacles Monitor/evaluator: Sober, strategic and discerning. Sees all options. Judges accurately Teamworker: Co-operative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic. Listens, builds, averts friction, calms the waters Implementer: Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient. Turns ideas into practical actions Completer: Painstaking, conscientious, anxious. Searches out errors and omissions. Delivers on time Specialist: Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Provides knowledge and skills in rare supply.

15 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Features of effective and ineffective groups

16 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning GROUP CONTROL AND ROLE THEORY Rules - explicit informal agreements or formal statements about acceptable and unacceptable behaviour Norms - implicit and informal expectations for behaviour within social entities Expected role – what the organization expects the individual to do in relation to their role Perceived role – what the individual understands their expected role to be Enacted role - reflects what the individual actually does in carrying out the tasks for which they are responsible

17 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Manifestation of team processes in action and transition phases Figure 7.5

18 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Group process dimensions Table 7.5

19 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning The components of the role theory - Handy (1993) Role set Role definition Role ambiguity Role incompatibility Role conflict Role overload/underload Role stress

20 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Role set for a university lecturer Figure 7.6

21 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning GROUP COHESION Factors which contribute to the level of cohesion developed within a group include: Environmental factors Organizational factors Group factors Individual factors

22 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning GROUP COHESION Figure 7.7

23 For use with Organizational Behaviour and Management by John Martin and Martin Fellenz © 2010 Cengage Learning Relationship between group cohesion and group performance Figure 7.8


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