2 Definition of a group Various definitions but all imply: More than one person involvedInteraction must take placePurpose or intentionAwareness
3 GroupsGroups - social entities of two or more people who interact with each other, are psychologically aware of each other, and think of themselves as a groupFormal groups are typically set up and sanctioned by the organization, and thus have specific objectives that contribute to achieving organizational goalsInformal groups are groups that form through interactions among organizational members
4 Groups and teamsKatenbach & Smith suggest that difference between group and team is that of performance and describe the following scale:Working groupPseudo-teamsPotential teamsReal teamsHigh performance teams
5 Groups, teams and organizations Hierarchical differentiationSpecialism groupingsActivity groupingsBoundary spanningProfessional
7 The hierarchy/customer conflict model Figure 7.2
8 WHY DO ORGANIZATIONS USE GROUPS? SynergySocial controlSocial facilitationPotential problems include:Social inhibitionSocial loafingSucker effect
9 Cultural and other factors in informal group formation The need for human beings to function in a social environment and to form relationships of their own choosingThe voluntary nature of many informal groups offsets the involuntary nature of many formal, organizational groupsThe approach adopted by managers to the running of the organizationThe need for individuals to exert influence and to achieve their formal and personal goals
10 Tuckman and Jensen’s model of group development Stage 1 – FormingStage 2 – StormingStage 3 – NormingStage 4 – PerformingStage 5 - Adjourning
11 Issues associated with Tuckman’s first four stages of group development Figure 7.3
12 Recent group development model Based on: Gibson & Earley, 2007; Gibson et al., 2009:information accumulation (perception and storing of information)interaction (retrieving, exchanging, and interactively structuring information)examination (meaning is socially negotiated and evaluated)accommodation (members integrate information, make decisions and take action)
14 The nine Belbin team roles Plant: Creative, imaginative, unorthodox. Solves difficult problemsResource investigator: Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities. Develops contactsCo-ordinator: Mature, confident, a good chairperson. Clarifies goals, promotes decision making, delegates wellShaper: Challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure. Has the drive and courage to overcome obstaclesMonitor/evaluator: Sober, strategic and discerning. Sees all options. Judges accuratelyTeamworker: Co-operative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic. Listens, builds, averts friction, calms the watersImplementer: Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient. Turns ideas into practical actionsCompleter: Painstaking, conscientious, anxious. Searches out errors and omissions. Delivers on timeSpecialist: Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Provides knowledge and skills in rare supply.
16 GROUP CONTROL AND ROLE THEORY Rules - explicit informal agreements or formal statements about acceptable and unacceptable behaviourNorms - implicit and informal expectations for behaviour within social entitiesExpected role – what the organization expects the individual to do in relation to their rolePerceived role – what the individual understands their expected role to beEnacted role - reflects what the individual actually does in carrying out the tasks for which they are responsible
17 Manifestation of team processes in action and transition phases Figure 7.5
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