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Managing Organizational Change

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1 Managing Organizational Change
Chapter 2 Images of Managing Change

2 Images of Organizations
Affect our interpretations of what we think is going on What we think needs to happen How we think things should happen aka “metaphors”, “frames”, or “perspectives” Mental models (Senge) Eg. Organizations as “machines” leads to “breakdowns” – strive to use multiple perspectives

3 Images of Managing Change: Where they Come From
Management as control Planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling Top-down, hierarchical view of managing Management as shaping

4 P. 24 – Table 2.1 – Images of Managing Change
Images of Change Outcomes Controlling… (activities) Shaping… (capabilities) Intended Image of managing change: DIRECTOR COACH Partially Intended NAVIGATOR INTERPRETER Unintended CARETAKER NURTURER

5 Management as Shaping More recent approach
Associated with a perceptive style of managing in which people are encouraged to be involved in decisions and to help identify how things can be done better Shaping employee behaviour in ways that encourage them to take actions of most benefit to the organization Toyota method

6 P. 25 – Corporate Capabilities
“Corporate capabilities are embedded in the fabric of the organization – in its practices, processes, systems, structures, culture, values, know-how and technologies.” “While personal capabilities leave the organization when their owner does, corporate capabilities tend to endure, despite the comings and goings of individuals”

7 Images of Change Outcomes
Intended Change Outcomes Intended change outcomes can be achieved Change is treated as the realization of prior intent through the action of change managers

8 3 Strategies for Producing Intentional Change (Chin & Benne, 1976)
Empirical-Rational Strategies Assume people are rational and follow their own self-interest Effective change occurs when a change can be demonstrated as desirable and aligned with the interests of the group affected by the change Normative-Re-educative Strategies Assume that changes occur when people dispense with their old, normative orientations and gain commitment to new ones

9 3 Strategies for Producing Intentional Change (Chin & Benne, 1976) -- continued
Power-Coercive Strategies Rely upon achieving intentional change by those with greater power gaining compliance in behaviour from those with lesser power Can be through legitimate authority or more coercive means

10 Partially Intended Change Outcomes
In this image, some, but not all, change intentions are achievable The link between what is intended and what is the final outcome is not necessarily direct (Mintzberg & Waters, 1985) This is due to the fact that both intended and unintended consequences may emerge from the actions of change managers

11 Unintended Change Outcomes
There is less attention paid to this image within the change literature although it is common in the mainstream organizational theory literature A variety of forces that either lead to: Change outcomes that are not intended by managers, or Inhibit the ability of managers to implement the changes that they desire Forces may be internal or external to an organization

12 Six Images of Managing Change
Image 1: Change Manager as Director Image 2: Change Manager as Navigator Image 3: Change Manager as Caretaker Image 4: Change Manager as Coach Image 5: Change Manager as Interpreter Image 6: Change Manager as Nurturer

13 Image 1: Change Manager as Director
Based on an image of management as control and of change outcomes as being achievable It is up to the change manager to direct the organization in particular ways in order to produce the required change Assumption – change is a strategic choice An optimistic view that intentional change can be achieved– as long as the change manager follows the correct steps that need to be taken

14 Image 2: Change Manager as Navigator
Control is seen as at the heart of management action, although a variety of factors external to managers mean that while they may achieve some intended change outcomes, others will occur over which they have little control Outcomes are at least partially emergent/controllable The change unfolds differently over time and according to the context in which the organization finds itself Change managers are urged to incorporate bottom-up involvement of staff in their approach

15 Image 3: Change Manager as Caretaker
The ideal image of management is still one of control, although the ability to exercise control is severely constrained by a variety of forces, both internally and externally driven, that propel change relatively independent of a manager’s intentions 3 organizational theories reinforce the caretaker image of managers of change: life-cycle, population ecology, and institutional

16 Image 4: Change Manager as Coach
The assumption is that change managers are able to intentionally shape the organization’s capabilities in particular ways The coach relies upon building in the right set of values, skills, and “drills” that are deemed to be the best ones that organizational members, as players, will be able to draw on adeptly in order to achieve desired organizational outcomes Traditional organizational development (OD) theory reinforces the manager as coach image

17 Image 5: Change Manager as Interpreter
The change manager creates meaning for other organizational members, helping them to make sense of various organizational events and actions Managers “need to be able to provide legitimate arguments and reasons for why their actions fit within the situation and should be viewed as legitimate” Better change managers are those who are able to dominate stories and understandings about the meaning of a specific change (and don’t allow speculation to take over)

18 Image 6: Change Manager as Nurturer
Assumes that even small changes may have a large impact on the organization and managers are not able to control the outcome of these changes Managers enable positive self-organizing to occur Chaos theory supports this image – change is non-linear, is fundamental rather than incremental, and does not necessarily entail growth

19 Three Key Uses of the Six-Images Framework
Surfacing Our Assumptions about Change Assessing Dominant Images of Change Using Multiple Images and Perspectives of Change

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