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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Power, Politics, and Influence
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–2 Learning Objectives After reading and studying this chapter and doing the exercises, you should be able to: 1.Identify sources of power for individuals and subunits within organizations. 2.Describe the essence of empowerment. 3.Pinpoint factors contributing to, and examples of, organizational politics. 4.Identify and describe a variety of influence tactics. 5.Explain how managers can control dysfunctional politics. 6.Differentiate between the ethical and unethical use of power, politics, and influence.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–3 The Meaning of Power, Politics, and Influence Power Is the potential or ability to influence decisions and control resources. Organizational politics Is the informal approaches to gaining power through means other than merit or luck. Influence Resembles power, but tends to be more subtle and indirect.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–4 Sources of Individual and Subunit Power Socialized power Is the use of power to achieve constructive ends. Personalized power Is the use of power primarily for the sake of personal aggrandizement and gain.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–5 Power Granted by the Organization Position power Legitimate power that is based on the managers formal position within the hierarchy of the firm. Enhanced by establishing polices and procedures that increase the scope of the positions control. Coercive power: controlling others through the fear of punishment. To be effective, employees must fear the punishment. Reward power: controlling others through rewards or the promise of rewards.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–6 Individual Power Personal power Power stemming from the individual Expert power: the ability to influence others because of ones specialized knowledge, skills, or abilities. Referent power: the ability to influence others that stems from ones desirable traits and characteristics.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–7 Individual and Subunit Power Power from providing resources Resource Dependence Perspective Subunits or individuals within an organization who control or provide the resources that the organization needs on a continuing basis can become quite powerful. Control of resources equals power for managers. People Materials and money Information
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–8 Empowerment of Group Members Empowerment The process of sharing power with group members, thereby enhancing their feelings of self-efficacy. Strategic benefits of distributing power: Improved productivity, quality, and satisfaction
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–9 Empowerment of Group Members (contd) Keys for the transition to effective empowerment: Sharing information Providing more structure (training and support) Gradually replacing traditional organizational structure Allowing individuals and teams to determine how to achieve objectives Above all, trusting in employees to do the right thing
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–10 Signs of Empowerment Taking initiative Identifying opportunities Using critical thinking skills Offering judgments Acting on opportunities Optimizing resources Source: Kyle Dover, Avoiding Empowerment Traps, Management Review (January 1999): 53. EXHIBIT 12-2
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–11 Signs of Disempowerment Waiting for a designated authority to step in and take charge Failing to see opportunities that problems often present Accepting decisions unquestioningly Failing to apply information about shared purpose Attempting but failing at consensus Yielding to higher authority whenever consensus building fails Focusing on resource questions only when directed Source: Kyle Dover, Avoiding Empowerment Traps, Management Review (January 1999): 53. EXHIBIT 12-2
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–12 Factors Contributing Political Behavior Organizations have a political nature due to: Coalitions of interests competing for resources. A pyramidal power structure that concentrates power at the top of the organization. Downsizing and team structures limit upward mobility for ambitious managers with a strong need for power. Decentralization disperses power in the organization. Machiavellian manipulation of others and the organization for personal gain by some managers.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–13 Effective Use of Organizational Politics Ethical Behaviors Develop power contacts Manage your impression Control vital information Keep informed Be courteous, pleasant, and positive Ask satisfied customer to contact your manager Avoid political blunders Use flattery sincerely Unethical Behaviors Engage in backstabbing Embrace-or-demolish Stealing credit Play territorial games (turf wars)
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–14 Organizational Influence Tactics 1.Leading by example 2.Assertiveness 3.Rationality 4.Ingratiation 5.Exchange (reciprocity) 6.Inspirational appeal and emotional display 7.Joking and kidding
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–15 Controlling Dysfunctional Politics Excessive politics and influence tactics can harm an organization and its members. Ways to control these activities: Rely on objective measures of performance tied to proper and significant goals for the organization. Align individual goals and objectives to be congruent with those of the organization. Practice open communications to remove the political value of information and to increase the overall understanding of the organization.
Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved.12–16 Politics and Ethical Considerations Testing the ethicality of actions and behaviors involves evaluating each strategy and tactic on its merits by: Turning the action inward: would it be ethical if the action were employed in working against you. Checking to see if the action is being used to attain organizational goals or to achieve a personal agenda and goals not sanctioned by the organization. Determining whether the actions means and ends violate human rights or standards of justice.
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