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Nixon’s War 1969-1975. What was the problem in Vietnam? His policy team said the problem was Laos and Cambodian neutrality His policy team said the problem.

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Presentation on theme: "Nixon’s War 1969-1975. What was the problem in Vietnam? His policy team said the problem was Laos and Cambodian neutrality His policy team said the problem."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nixon’s War

2 What was the problem in Vietnam? His policy team said the problem was Laos and Cambodian neutrality His policy team said the problem was Laos and Cambodian neutrality Nixon decided to expand war to these countries, mainly to try and cut off NVA/VC supply route. Nixon decided to expand war to these countries, mainly to try and cut off NVA/VC supply route.

3 Westy replaced! Westmoreland is made Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Westmoreland is made Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Replaced by General Creighton Abrams in 1968 Replaced by General Creighton Abrams in 1968

4 Operation Menu Covert bombing of communist bases in Cambodia Covert bombing of communist bases in Cambodia

5 Hamburger Hill May 10, 1969 to May 20, 1969 May 10, 1969 to May 20, 1969 Ten days of intense fighting Ten days of intense fighting 50 US soldiers killed 50 US soldiers killed 630 NVA were killed 630 NVA were killed Faulty logic emerged – after taking the hill the US simply abandoned it Faulty logic emerged – after taking the hill the US simply abandoned it This allows for the enemy to reoccupy This allows for the enemy to reoccupy

6 Hamburger Hill

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9 Nixon’s new policy Conduct war with a minimum of US casualties Conduct war with a minimum of US casualties Vietnamization – US forces would withdraw while training and preparing a larger South Vietnamese army to take over the bulk of the fighting Vietnamization – US forces would withdraw while training and preparing a larger South Vietnamese army to take over the bulk of the fighting June of 1969 withdrew 25,000 troops from Vietnam June of 1969 withdrew 25,000 troops from Vietnam

10 US invades Cambodia Disrupt the plans of the NVA/VC Disrupt the plans of the NVA/VC Buy time for Vietnamization Buy time for Vietnamization Overall it was very successful Overall it was very successful -US lost 383 -US lost 383 -NVA/VC lost 11,000 -NVA/VC lost 11,000

11 Backfire on the home front Saw the invasion of Cambodia as needless escalation Saw the invasion of Cambodia as needless escalation -catalyst for protest at Kent State – May, catalyst for protest at Kent State – May, 1970 Credibility Gap grew Credibility Gap grew Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Congress forbade US of troops in Cambodia but left open air attacks Congress forbade US of troops in Cambodia but left open air attacks

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14 Operation Lam Son South Vietnamese troops with some US ground troops and major air support invade Laos to disrupt NVA/VC supply bases South Vietnamese troops with some US ground troops and major air support invade Laos to disrupt NVA/VC supply bases Each side claimed victory Each side claimed victory Nixon claimed Vietnamization a victory Nixon claimed Vietnamization a victory Showed heavy dependence on US air support Showed heavy dependence on US air support NVA – 20,000 – South Vietnam – 1,700 – US – 1149 and 108 helicopters NVA – 20,000 – South Vietnam – 1,700 – US – 1149 and 108 helicopters

15 Operation Eastertide

16 Eastertide Offensive – March to October 1972 NVA massed 20 divisions – 200,000 troops NVA massed 20 divisions – 200,000 troops Three pronged attack into North, Center, and South Vietnam Three pronged attack into North, Center, and South Vietnam Initial success but all attacks were pushed back and cities retaken Initial success but all attacks were pushed back and cities retaken Lack of success of NVA due in part to spreading forces too thin Lack of success of NVA due in part to spreading forces too thin NVA suffered 100,000 casualties and lost half of tanks and heavy artillery NVA suffered 100,000 casualties and lost half of tanks and heavy artillery

17 Pushing Peace in Paris Nixon claims Vietnamization is working and provides basis to get out Nixon claims Vietnamization is working and provides basis to get out Launches Operation Linebacker on North Vietnam- air strikes Launches Operation Linebacker on North Vietnam- air strikes Felt South Vietnamese could hold out with US air support Felt South Vietnamese could hold out with US air support At conference North Vietnamese stall and Nixon launches “Christmas Bombing” At conference North Vietnamese stall and Nixon launches “Christmas Bombing”

18 January 27, 1973 – Paris Peace Accords North Vietnam – cease-fire in S. Vietnam and release all prisoners North Vietnam – cease-fire in S. Vietnam and release all prisoners US- halt operations and remove US forces from S. Vietnam and dismantle bases, commit to reconstruction of N. Vietnam US- halt operations and remove US forces from S. Vietnam and dismantle bases, commit to reconstruction of N. Vietnam South Vietnam – agree to reunification by peaceful means, allowed for NVA occupation of certain S. Vietnamese areas South Vietnam – agree to reunification by peaceful means, allowed for NVA occupation of certain S. Vietnamese areas

19 Case-Church Amendment June 1973 Demanded an end to US involvement in South and North Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Demanded an end to US involvement in South and North Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. No more funds would be available after August 15, 1973 No more funds would be available after August 15, 1973 Nixon did not have enough support to prevent his veto from being overridden Nixon did not have enough support to prevent his veto from being overridden

20 Fall of South Vietnam – April 30, 1975

21 The figures US – 58,000 killed and 300,000 wounded US – 58,000 killed and 300,000 wounded For the 1 st time the US failed in its war objectives For the 1 st time the US failed in its war objectives South Vietnam – 400,000 killed South Vietnam – 400,000 killed NVA/VC – 1 million killed NVA/VC – 1 million killed


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