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Chapter 22 Section 5 President Nixon and Vietnamization

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1 Chapter 22 Section 5 President Nixon and Vietnamization
The Pullout Begins New president Richard Nixon finds negotiations not progressing National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger works on new plan Vietnamization—U.S. troops withdraw, S. Vietnam troops take over “Peace with Honor” Nixon calls for “peace with honor” to maintain U.S. dignity Orders bombing of N. Vietnam, Vietcong hideouts in Laos, Cambodia

2 Chapter 22 Section 5 Trouble Continues on the Home Front
Mainstream America • Silent majority—moderate, mainstream people who support war The My Lai Massacre News breaks that U.S. platoon massacred civilians in My Lai village Lt. William Calley, Jr., in command, is convicted, imprisoned

3 Chapter 22 Section 5 The Invasion of Cambodia
• 1970, U.S. troops invade Cambodia to clear out enemy supply centers • 1.5 million protesting college students close down 1,200 campuses Violence on Campus • National Guard kills 4 in confrontation at Kent State University • Guardsmen kill 2 during confrontation at Jackson State in MS • 100,000 construction workers rally in NYC to support government

4 Chapter 22 Section 5 The Pentagon Papers Nixon invades Cambodia:
Congress repeals Tonkin Gulf Resolution Pentagon Papers show plans to enter war under LBJ Confirm belief of many that government not honest about intentions America’s Longest War Ends

5 Chapter 22 Section 5 “Peace is at Hand”
1971, 60% think U.S. should withdraw from Vietnam by end of year 1972 N. Vietnamese attack; U.S. bombs cities, mines Haiphong harbor Kissinger agrees to complete withdrawal of U.S.: “Peace is at hand” The Final Push S. Vietnam rejects Kissinger plan; talks break off; bombing resumes Congress calls for end to war; peace signed January 1973

6 Chapter 22 Section 5 The Fall of Saigon
Cease-fire breaks down; South surrenders after North invades 1975 The War Leaves a Painful Legacy American Veterans Cope Back Home 58,000 Americans, over 2 million North, South Vietnamese die in war Returning veterans face indifference, hostility at home About 15% develop post-traumatic stress disorder

7 Chapter 22 Section 5 Further Turmoil in Southeast Asia
Communists put 400,000 S. Vietnamese in labor camps; 1.5 million flee Civil war breaks out in Cambodia; Khmer Rouge seize power Want to establish peasant society; kill at least 1 million people

8 Chapter 22 Section 5 The Legacy of Vietnam
• Government abolishes military draft • 1973 Congress passes War Powers Act: President must inform Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops 90 day maximum deployment without Congressional approval War contributes to cynicism about government, political leaders

9 Chapter 22 Section 5 Quiz 1.) Name the term for America pulling out of Vietnam and allowing the South Vietnamese to fight for themselves? a. Withdrawal with Honor b. De Communization c. Vietnamization 2.) Name Nixon’s slogan for the withdrawal of the American troops from Vietnam? a. Peace with Honor b. The End of Communism c. The Defeat of the Vietcong 3.) What massacre led to innocent killings in a village that harbored the Viet Cong? a. The Saigon Massacre b. The My Lai Massacre c. The Tet Offensive Massacre 4.) What papers showed that LBJ had been dishonest about his intentions in Vietnam? a. The Pentagon Papers b. The Cold War Papers c. The Gulf of Tonkin Papers 5.) What year was the Peace Treaty signed in Vietnam? a. 1965 b. 1968 c. 1973 6.) What happened to South Vietnam after the U.S. troops left? a. They maintained their independence b. They were overtaken by the Vietcong and forced to become communist c. They attacked and overtook the Vietcong 7.) How many Americans were killed in the Vietnam war? a. 58,000 b. Over 1 Million c. Over 2 Million 8.) What percentage of Vietnam veterans suffered from post traumatic stress disorder? a. 5% b. Over 50% c. 15% 9.) How many Vietnamese died in the Vietnam war? b. Under 1 Million 10.) Name one legacy of the Vietnam war. a. Americans came to trust the Government more than ever b. Americans agreed that America should be the world’s police c. Americans came to distrust the government

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