Presentation on theme: "Major Conflicts in the post- WWII Era 1950-1975. The Korean War – 1950-1953 After WWII, North Korea had been occupied by the Soviet Union; South Korea."— Presentation transcript:
The Korean War – 1950-1953 After WWII, North Korea had been occupied by the Soviet Union; South Korea was controlled by the U.S Began when North Korea invaded South Korea in June, 1950. By September, North Korean (communist) forces had occupied most of South Korea. The U.S. entered the war in 1950 as part of a United Nations force. U.S. troops made up most of this force.
The Korean War Cont. The U.S. entered the war to stop the spread of communism. Gen. Douglas MacArthur commanded the United Nations forces. The goal of the U.S. was to force the North Koreans out of South Korea. As the war turned in favor of the United Nations, the Chinese came to the aid of North Korea.
The Korean War MacArthur wanted to attack China, by invasion or by using atomic bombs. Truman disagreed; he relieved MacArthur from his command. A cease fire agreement was signed July 27 th, 1953. The country was divided at the 38 th parallel as it was before the war. The war ended in a stalemate
The Cuban Missile Crisis - October 1962 A showdown between the U.S. and the Soviet Union Occurred after the Soviet Union placed missiles in Cuba. Pres. John F. Kennedy ordered the navy to blockade Cuba until the Soviets removed the missiles. Kennedy threatened to destroy any Soviet ship that attempted to break through the blockade as well as respond to any nuclear attack launched by the Soviets from Cuba. The Soviet ships eventually turned back. The missiles were also removed from Cuba.
The Vietnam War (1965-1973) The U.S. intervened to stop the spread of communism into South Vietnam The Domino Theory – belief that countries in Southeast Asia would fall to communism like a row of dominoes, one after another. This helped shape American policy in Vietnam for many years. Pres. Eisenhower (1953-1961) sent S. Vietnam billions of dollars and a few hundred advisors to the government and army.
The Vietnam War (1965-1973) Pres. Kennedy (1961-1963) had sent nearly 15,000 American troops to Vietnam as advisors before his assassination on November 22, 1963. Gulf of Tonkin (1964) – North Vietnamese patrol boats allegedly attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin near N. Vietnam.
The Vietnam War (1965-1973) As a result, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) the power “to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States.” In 1965, Johnson began to gradually increase the U.S.’s involvement in Vietnam.
The Vietnam War (1965-1973) On March 8 th, 1965, U.S. marines landed near Da Nang. Over the next three years, the numbers of American troops would increase: 1965 – 180,000, 1966 – almost 400,000, 1967 – more than 500,000. Therefore, Pres. Johnson made the largest military commitment to Vietnam.
The Vietnam War (1965-1973) The war became very unpopular in the U.S. and protests grew. One reason was due to mass media, such as T.V., keeping many people informed. Another reason was the belief that another nation’s civil war should not concern the U.S.
The Vietnam War (1965-1973) Richard Nixon became president of the U.S. in 1969. He pledged “peace with honor” in Vietnam. He started to withdrawal American troops in June of 1969. He came up with a plan known as Vietnamization, in which he called for the army of South Vietnam to take a more active role in fighting the war and the for the U.S. to become less involved. 1969 – more than 540,000 American troops in Vietnam. By the end of 1970 – 334,000, by 1971 – 60,000
The Vietnam War (1965-1973) Nixon began peace talks with the North Vietnamese in 1969. Nixon did however expand the bombing in Vietnam, as well as bombing Laos and Cambodia. These two countries were used as hideouts and contained supply routes for the enemy.
The Vietnam War (1965-1973) In 1972, the heaviest bombing of the war fell on North Vietnam’s cities. This provoked outrage in the U.S. but they did bring the North Vietnamese back to the peace talks. On January 27 th, 1973, a peace treaty was signed. American involvement was over. The war itself was not over until April 30 th, 1975 when South Vietnam surrendered to North Vietnam (communists). Vietnam is one of five countries that is still communist today. The other four are China, Laos, Cuba, and North Korea.