2 ISPS - Introduction Purpose and evaluation Course Overview Competencies to be achievedHistoryCurrent security threats and patternsShip and port operations and conditions
3 I. Introduction – Purpose & Evaluation International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) CodeSOLAS (adopted 12/Dec./2002)Part A – Part BPurpose of ISPS-Code?
4 I. Introduction – Purpose & Evaluation Build International Framework (Governments – Shipping & Port Industries)detect security threatspreventive measuresSecurity incidents
5 I. Introduction – Purpose & Evaluation Establish roles & responsibilitiesGovernmentsShip & port IndustriesNational & international lvlEnsure maritime security
6 I. Introduction – Purpose & Evaluation Early & efficientCollectionExchangeSecurity related information
7 I. Introduction – Purpose & Evaluation Provide methodology for security assessmentsPlansProceduresReact to changing security lvls
8 I. Introduction – Purpose & Evaluation Ensure confidenceAdequateProportionateSecurity measures in place
9 I. Introduction – Purpose & Evaluation Training objectives:To enable trainees to undertake the role and duties of SSOTo prepare trainees to understand Security and Risk AssessmentTo prepare trainees to understand the threat to the industry
10 I. Introduction – Purpose & Evaluation Training objectives:To prepare trainees to understand the ship security plan and conduct a SSATo acquaint trainees with port security measuresTo outline to trainees relevant legislations
11 ISPS - Introduction Course Overview Purpose and evaluation Competencies to be achievedHistoryCurrent security threats and patternsShip and port operations and conditions
12 II. Course Overview Introduction Maritime security policy Competencies to be achievedHistoryCurrent security threads and patternsShip and port operations and conditionsMaritime security policyInternational conventions, codes and recommendationsRelevant government legislation and regulationsDefinitionsLegal implications of action or non-action by SSOHandling sensitive security-related information and communications
13 II. Course Overview Security Responsibilities Contracting governments Recognised Security OrganisationsThe CompanyThe ShipThe port facilitySSOCSOPFSOVessel personnel with specific security dutiesFacility personnel with specific security duties
14 II. Course Overview Ship Security Assessment Security Equipment Risk assessment methodologyAssessment toolsOn-scene security surveysSecurity assessment documentationSecurity EquipmentSecurity equipment and systemsOperational limitations of security equipment and systemsTesting, calibrating and maintenance of security equipment and systems
15 II. Course Overview Ship Security Plan Purpose of SSPContents of SSPConfidentiality issuesImplementation of SSPMaintenance and modification of SSPThreat identification, recognition and responseRecognition and detection of weapons, dangerous substances and devicesMethods of physical searches and non-intrusive inspectionsImplementing and coordinating searchesRecognition, on a non-discriminatory basis, of persons posing potential security risksTechniques used to circumvent security measuresCrowd management and control techniques
16 II. Course Overview Ship security actions Actions required by different security levelsMaintaining security of ship/port interfaceUsage of Declaration of SecurityImplementation of security proceduresEmergency preparedness, Drills and exercisesContingency planningSecurity drills and exercisesAssessment of security drills and exercises
17 II. Course Overview Security administration Security training Documentation and recordsReporting security breachesMonitoring and controlSecurity audits and inspectionsReporting nonconformitiesSecurity trainingSecurity requirements
18 ISPS - Introduction Competencies to be achieved Purpose and evaluation Course OverviewCompetencies to be achievedHistoryCurrent security threats and patternsShip and port operations and conditions
19 III. Competencies to be achieved No Fighting!IdentifyDeterMitigate (verlichten – atténuer)PlanningPreparationcoordination
20 III. Competencies to be achieved security administration;relevant international conventions, codes and recommendations;relevant Government legislation and regulations;responsibilities and functions of other security organizations;methodology of ship security assessment;methods of ship security surveys and inspections;ship and port operations and conditions;ship and port facility security measures;emergency preparedness and response and contingency planning;instruction techniques for security training and education, including security measures and procedures;handling sensitive security related information and security related communications;knowledge of current security threats and patterns;
21 III. Competencies to be achieved recognition and detection of weapons, dangerous substances and devices;recognition, on a non discriminatory basis, of characteristics and behavioural patterns of persons who are likely to threaten security;techniques used to circumvent security measures;security equipment and systems and their operational limitations;methods of conducting audits, inspection, control and monitoring;methods of physical searches and non-intrusive inspections;security drills and exercises, including drills and exercises with port facilities; andassessment of security drills and exercises.the layout of the ship;the ship security plan and related procedures (including scenario-based training on how to respond);
22 III. Competencies to be achieved crowd management and control techniques;operations of security equipment and systems andtesting, calibration and whilst at sea maintenance of security equipment and systems.
23 ISPS - Introduction History Purpose and evaluation Course Overview Competencies to be achievedHistoryCurrent security threats and patternsShip and port operations and conditions
25 IV. HistoryTerrorism—defined here as the systematic use of murder, injury, and destruction, or the threat of such acts, aimed at achieving political ends is not new.
26 IV. HistoryTerrorism is not brutal, unthinking violenceExperts agree that there is almost always a strategy behind terrorist actions. Whether it takes the form of bombings, shootings, hijackings, or assassinations, terrorism is neither random, spontaneous, nor blind;it is a deliberate use of violence against civilians for political or religious ends.
27 4 key-elements of terrorism IV. History4 key-elements of terrorismIt is premeditated—planned in advance, rather than an impulsive act of rage.It is political—not criminal, like the violence that groups such as the mafia use to get money, but designed to change the existing political order.It is aimed at civilians—not at military targets or combat-ready troops.It is carried out by subnational groups—not by the army of a country.
28 IV. History 44 BC: The murder on Julius Ceasar 1st century AC: The « Sicarii » (latin for dagger) used violance to oppose the Roman control of Judea11th Century - Afghanistan: The Hashashins (etymology: assassin) – Members of an Islamite sect (Nizaris) had the duty to kill hostile leaders1773: The Boston tea party. Colonist, dressed as Indians, dumped tea in the port of Boston to protest against the British tax policy (beginning of the fighting between Britain & the Colonies)1881: Tsar Alexander II is killed by the “Narodnaja Volja” (will of the people)
29 IV. HistoryLeon Czolgosz, anarchist, killed the American president William McKinley.The year was …………. 1901
30 IV. History1914: WWI is triggered by the assassination of Franz-Ferdinand, archduke of Austria by a radical Serbian Nationalist1963: Klu-Klux-clan reacts violant to the civil right movement in Birmingham (Alabama)1972: Deadly Olympic games – Munich (Members of a Palestinian Terrorist organisation kill 2 Israeli athletes and take 9 others hostage)
31 IV. History1983: Suicide attack by the Hezbollah on the American embassy in Beirut1995: Timoty McVeigh blows up the federal government building in Oklahoma City with ammonium-nitrate (fertiliser)1995: Apocalypse in the subway of Tokyo. The Aum Shinrikyo sect releases Sarin gas in the subway killing 12 people and making several thousand sick. They believed that the end of the world was nearby
35 IV. HistoryThe 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 11/3, 3/11, M-11 and 11-M) were a series of coordinated terrorist bombings against the commuter train system of madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 191 people and wounded 1,460.
36 IV. HistoryIraqi terrorist decapitate the South-Korean hostage when his country refuses to withdraw her troops from Iraq16/11/04 Iraqi terrorist murder the British- Irish -Iraqi charity worker Margaret Hassan
39 History goes on – London 21/7/05 IV. HistoryHistory goes on – London 21/7/05On Thursday 7 July 2005 a series of four bomb attacks struck London’s public transport system during the morning rush hour. At 8:50 a.m. three bombs exploded within 50 seconds of each other on three London underground trains. A fourth bomb exploded on a bus at 9:47 a.m. in Tavistock Square. Fifty-six people were killed in the attacks, with 700 injured. The incident was the deadliest single act of terrorism in the U.K. since the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 (which killed 270), and the deadliest bombing in London since the WWII.
42 IV. History Where will it stop……….. ? Next animated film for children promotes suicide bombingsThis film was aired on the Iranian television October 28, 2005
43 IV. History Definition Security: The quality or state of being secure Being secure = Free from fear or distrustTranslations:Dutch = veiligheid(sgevoel)French = Sécurité (sentiment de -)
44 IV. History Humans are thick-headed: International legislation only changes AFTER major catastrophesExamplesTITANIC => SOLAS (1914)SEVERAL ACCIDENTS 76 & 77 => MARPOL Protocol 1978TEXACO CARIBBEAN => TSS systemsESTONIA => ISM on board of Ro-Ro’sEXXON VALDEZ => OPA90 & MARPOL 13F&GERIKA => Accelerated phasing out of single hull tankersAND SO ON !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
45 The Achille Lauro was to Security As The The Titanic was to Safety IV. History
47 Achille Lauro IV. History Security Breached 1985 7th October Time: 1330 hours4 Terrorists from Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) hijack the Achille LauroAchille LauroThe Achille Lauro incident is an ideal example of what can happen when there are no security measures in place.It is important for delegates to understand that the PLA had planned the operation, with the intention of sailing with AL to Ashdod where they would, from the vessel murder Israelis sun bathing on the holiday beach.The PLF recce had shown that there was little or no security.Tickets: Paid for with cash. (No records)Screening: Stolen Passports (Norwegian)IDs not checked against passportBaggage not searchedFree access to entire shipThe PLF had remained in their cabin, denying access to cabin stewards.A cabin steward used his pass key at 1330 on 7 Oct to enter the PLF cabin and found the terrorists cleaning weapons. That was when the PLF plan changed to hijack the vessel.GOOD SECURITY WOULD HAVE STOPPED THEM AT THE RECCE!
48 IV. HistoryIn 1985, Palestinian militants (PLF) under the command of Abbu Abbas hijacked the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro. Before the siege ended, an elderly wheelchair-bound American Jew, Leon Klinghoffer, had been murdered and dumped into the sea.Abbas always claimed it was all a mistake, a military mission that went wrong. "There was no plan to hijack the ship or hurt the people aboard."
49 Victim: US citizen Klinghoffer IV. HistoryVictim: US citizen Klinghoffer
50 This statement makes a bridge between political goals & violance IV. HistoryAbbas Quote:This statement makes a bridge between political goals & violance
51 IV. History Pre 11 September 2001: Passenger ship, cruise or ferry, seen as target of attack or hijackShips were also seen as an instrument to;Ships used to carry equipment or personnelShip used in trade to help finance terrorist activities (piracy)
53 IV. History Post 11 Septembre 2001: Ship itself seen as possible weapon, or as possibly arriving in port carrying a weapon of mass destruction capable of destroying the port and any adjacent population centre
54 IV. History The new threat: The use of an aircraft / ship as a weapon of mass destruction.Suicide AttackUse of Chemical, Biological, “Dirty Bomb” or Nuclear weaponsEnvironmental TerrorismCyber TerrorState Sponsored Terrorism
55 IV. History LNG-Terminal Boston: Scenario by Mr. Fay, mechanical engineerLoaded 900 ft LNG carrier alongsideTerrorist attack by means of a small boat (35ft) loaded with 2 tons ammonium-nitrate, exploding against the hull (à la Limburg)In contact with the warm water the LNG would vaporize => explosive mixtureAn explosion would wipe out 9 square mile of the city of BostonScenario is heavily criticised
56 IV. History 1983 – Assembly Resolution A.545 (13) Measures to prevent acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships1985 – Achille Lauro1985 – 2001 Individual Initiatives by USA, Canada, IMO & UKWTC – 11 september 2001ISPS code and SOLAS Amendments 2002
57 AMENDMENTS TO SOLAS Chapter V and Chapter XI Now XI-I and XI-2 IV. HistoryAMENDMENTS TO SOLAS Chapter V and Chapter XI Now XI-I and XI-2Time Line.Feb 2002 Admiral Pluta (US Coastguard) chaired IMO committee in London.Throughout year several drafts.Financed by USAFrom 21proposals 19 accepted. (Crew ID-Criminal record & Owners names not accepted).Adopted 12 Dec 2002
58 ISPS CODE AND SOLAS AMENDMENTS 2002: IV. HistoryISPS CODE AND SOLAS AMENDMENTS 2002:CHAPTER VAccelerated implementation of AISCHAPTER XI - 1Ship’s Identification NumberContinuous Synopsis RecordCHAPTER XI - 2International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) CodePart A - MandatoryPart B - Recommendatory
59 ISPS - Introduction Current security threats and patterns Purpose and evaluationCourse OverviewCompetencies to be achievedHistoryCurrent security threats and patternsShip and port operations and conditions
60 V. Current security threats and patterns 2006 Terrorist attacks2006: Qassam rockets fired by Hamas into Israel, especially the cities of Ashkelon and Sderot, injures "many" citizens.Suicide attacks in Iraq in 2006.February 22: Al Askari Mosque bombing ignites sectarian strife in Iraq.March 2: Bombing in Karachi, Pakistan kills four, including a U.S. diplomat. March 3: Mohammed Reza Taheri-azar, an Iranian-born graduate of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, drives an SUV onto a crowded part of campus, injuring nine.March 7: Bombings in the Hindu holy city of Varanasi, India kill 28 and injures more than 100.March 30: Palestinian suicide bomber kills himself and four others at Kedumim Junction in the West Bank April 11: A suicide bomber explodes himself in Karachi, Pakistan, and kills 57 Sunni worshippers. April 17: Sami Hammad, a Palestinian suicide bomber, detonates an explosive device in Tel Aviv, Israel, killing eleven people and injuring 70.April 24: Bombings at three locations in Dahab, Egypt kill 20 Egyptians, 3 foreigners, and injure 62 others.May 11: Six policemen die and 12 are injured when five bombs go off in a police academy in Quetta, Pakistan June 15 : The LTTE detonate a claymore mine by a bus carrying 140 civilians in Sri Lanka. 68 civilians, including 10 children and 3 pregnant women, are killed. Approximately 60 civilians are injured.The 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombingsJune 25: Eliyahu Asheri, an Israeli citizen, was kidnapped and murdered by the Palestinian terrorist group, the Popular Resistance Committees (PRC).July 9: 40 Sunni civilians are massacred by Shia militants in Baghdad, Iraq.July 11: A series of explosions rock commuter trains in Mumbai, India, killing at least 200. Approximately 700 civilians are injured.
61 V. Current security threats and patterns July 14: Suicide bomber in Karachi, Pakistan kills a Shiite Islamic cleric Allama Hasan Turabi and his nephew.July 17: Explosions and gunmen kill 48 people in a market in Mahmoudiya, Iraq. July 18: Car bombing near a Shiite shrine in Kufa, Iraq kills 53 and injures 103. July 31: Two suitcase bombs are discovered in trains near the German towns of Dortmund and Koblenz, undetonated due to an assembly error. Video footage from Cologne train station, where the bombs were put on the trains, led to the arrest of two Lebanese students in Germany, Youssef al-Hajdib and Jihad Hamad, and subsequently of three suspected co-conspirators in Lebanon . On 1 September 2006, Jörg Ziercke, head of the Bundeskriminalamt (Federal Police), reports that the suspects saw the controversial Muhammad cartoons as an "assault by the West on Islam" and the "initial spark" for the attack, originally planned to coincide with the 2006 Football World Cup in Germany.August 4: A suicide car bomber struck a market in Kandahar, Afghanistan killing 21 people.August 10: A major anti-terrorist operation disrupts an alleged bomb plot targeting multiple airplanes bound for the United States flying through Heathrow Airport, near London, UK.August 13: Two grenades explode on a trolleybus in Tiraspol, Moldova, killing two people and injuring ten. August 16: A bomb exploded in a Hindu temple near Imphal, India, killing three and injuring more than 30. August 20: Gunmen spray bullets on Shiites in Baghdad, killing 20 people and wounding more than 300. September 8: At least 2 bomb blasts target a Muslim cemetery in the western town of Malegaon. The blasts kill 37 people and leave 125 others wounded.September 12: Four attackers armed with grenades and machine guns attempt to storm the U.S. embassy in Damascus, Syria. Three of the gunmen and one Syrian guard are killed during a battle between the attackers and Syrian security forces. One Syrian employee of the embassy and at least 10 bystanders are wounded, among them, 7 Syrian telephone company workers and a senior Chinese diplomat. Police recover a car laden with explosives and other IEDs. Syrian Ambassador to the United States Imad Moustapha announces that his government suspects a group called Jund al-Sham is responsible. September 15: Four suicide bombers and a security guard are killed in early-morning attacks on the Safer refinery in Marib and the al-Dhabba terminal in Hadramout, Yemen. Although no group has claimed responsibility Islamic extremists are suspected. See the September 15th Yemen attacks page.
62 V. Current security threats and patterns September 16: 2006 Hat Yai bombings: 4 people killed, 82 injured, by six bombs along the main commercial street of Hat Yai. The devices were placed approximately 500 meters apart, and were remotely set off every five minutes.September 18: 11 people, including the presidents brother and 6 attackers, are killed in an assassination attempt on the Somalian president.  See 2006 Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed assassination attempt.September 30: A suicide bomber detonates his explosives outside the interior ministry in Kabul. The attack kills 12 and wounds over 40.October 16: A truck bomb targets a military bus convoy travelling in Northern Sri Lanka. The attack leaves 99, mainly sailors, dead and over 100 wounded. The Tamil Tigers are blamed.November 1: The Real IRA detonates a series of firebombs in a large hardware retailers and a sports store in Belfast, both buildings are completely destroyed. No fatalities.
66 V. Current security threats and patterns Recently reported incidentsat 0515 LT at Dar es Salaam anchorage, Tanzania. Robbers boarded a chemical tanker via anchor chain. They stole ship's stores and escaped. Master’s attempt to contact port control was futile.at 1400 LT off Ticala, San Pablo, Samboanga del Sur, southern Mindanoa, Philippines. Armed pirates attacked a group of fishing vessels engaged in fishing. Four fishermen were killed in the shootout. at 0400 LT in posn: 10:28.7N - 064:08.5W, Navimca, Cumana, Venezuela. Robbers boarded a yacht at anchor and stole two outboard engines
68 ISPS - Introduction Ship and port operations and conditions Purpose and evaluationCourse OverviewCompetencies to be achievedHistoryCurrent security threats and patternsShip and port operations and conditions
69 VI. Ship and port operations and conditions InterchangeTotal transportSecurity risks every point
70 VI. Ship and port operations and conditions Security risks, total chain management and information