September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks Coordinated suicide attacks on the U.S. 19 terrorists hijacked 4 airliners Hijackers intentionally crashed: – 2 of the airliners into the World Trade Center, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both buildings collapsed within 2 hours. – 3 rd airliner into the Pentagon just outside Wash, D.C. – 4 th plane crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania after some of its passengers & crew attempted to retake control of the plane. There were no survivors from any of the flights, plus many died on the ground. – Nearly 3,000 victims and the 19 hijackers died in the attacks.
September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks Who did it?: al Qaeda, extremist Muslim terror group Why did they do it? – Wanted to punish the US for: Supporting Israel Stationing troops in Saudi Arabia (location of the holiest sites of Islam) Sanctioning Iraq What did they get out of it? – U.S. did not change its policies re: Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iraq – AQ is still trying to end Western influence in Muslim countries and to implement laws based on the Koran (Sharia Law)
Madrid Train Bombings – March 11, 2004 10 simultaneous bombings on four commuter trains during the morning rush hour 3 days before Spain's general elections The explosions killed 191 people and wounded 1,800.
Madrid Train Bombings – March 11, 2004 Who did it: – al Qaeda cell (small group of terrorists separate from the main organization, with a specific terrorism target), though no direct link to al Qaeda has been proven Why did they do it? – Wanted Spain to stop supporting the US in the war in Iraq What did they get out of it? – The party that won the election carried out its promise to pull out of the war in Iraq
Bombing of an airplane over Lockerbie, Scotland – Dec. 21, 1988 Pan Am Flight 103 crashed as a result of a terrorist bomb. The 270 fatalities (all 259 on the plane, 11 in Lockerbie)
Bombing of an airplane over Lockerbie, Scotland – Dec. 21, 1988 Who did it? – Libyan government agent probably acting on orders of former dictator Muammar Ghadaffi Why did he do it? – Revenge for several attacks by the US navy in the Mediterranean against Libya What did he get out of it? – 8.5 years of jail (before being released b/c he had cancer) – Sanctions against Libya – eventually Libya took responsibility and paid each victim’s families over $5 million
Munich Olympic Massacre 1972 Israeli Olympic team members were taken hostage & eventually murdered 11 Israeli athletes/coaches & 1 West German police officer were killed 5 of the 8 terrorists were killed by police officers during a failed rescue attempt
Munich Olympic Massacre 1972 Who did it? – The militant Palestinian terrorist group Black September Why did they do it? – Anger at the establishment of Israel and Jordan’s kicking the Palestinian Liberation Organization out of Jordan What did they get out of it? – Anger of much of the world – All surviving Palestinian terrorists killed by Israel
Oklahoma City Bombing - 1995 Attack on the Alfred Murrah Federal Building Explosive-filled truck parked in front of the building Claimed 168 lives, including 19 children under the age of 6, and injured more than 680 people. Most destructive act of terrorism on American soil until 9/11. Blast destroyed or damaged 324 buildings within a sixteen-block radius, destroyed or burned 86 cars, and shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings.
Oklahoma City Bombing - 1995 Who did it? – Timothy McVeigh, an US army veteran and American militia movement sympathizer Why did he do it? – Angry at the US government for attacking the compounds of people who defied it (Waco, TX and Ruby Ridge, ID) What did he get out of it? – Death sentence carried out in 2001
Sarin gas attack - 1995 5 coordinated attacks of releasing sarin on several lines of the Tokyo Metro. Killed 13 people, severely injured 50 & caused temporary vision problems for nearly 1,000 others. Attacks directed against trains passing through the area where major Japanese government buildings are located.
Sarin gas attack - 1995 Who did it? – Aum Shinrikyo religious cult Why did they do it? Good question – Wanted to hasten the apocalypse? – Wanted to take over the government? What did they get out of it? – Leader sentenced to death in 2004 (still to be carried out) – Cult membership drastically cut
Mosque Massacre -1994 Extremist Jew wearing his Israeli army reserve uniform open fired in a mosque in Hebron in the West Bank Killed 29 Muslims at prayer and wounded another 150
Mosque Massacre - 1994 Who did it ? – American-born Jewish Israeli extremist Baruch Goldstein Why did he do it? – He was an extremist settler who wanted to push Palestinians out of the West Bank What did he get out of it? – Beaten to death by survivors of the massacre – Seen as a martyr (perceived as a religious hero for dying for a religious cause) for extremist Israelis
Iranian Hostage Crisis November 1979 - January 1981 An angry mob overran the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking more than 60 Americans hostage Early on in the crisis the hostages were frequently paraded blindfolded in front of the press Women and African Americans were released, but 52 Americans were held hostage in secret locations for 444 days
Iranian Hostage Crisis November 1979 - January 1981 Who did it? – An angry mob of young Islamic revolutionaries who probably had help from the government Why did they do it? – Angry that the previous government of Iran had been closely allied with the U.S. What did they get out of it? – Attention of the entire world – Poor relations with the U.S. (still)
Mumbai Attacks 2008 11 coordinated shooting & bombing attacks across Mumbai (India’s financial center) killing 164 people and wounding at least 308 Attacked train stations, hotels, hospital, a Jewish community center, movie theater, newspaper office, college and a major port. Caused complete chaos for 3 days
Mumbai Attacks 2008 Who did it? – Islamist terrorists from the Pakistani group Lashkar-e- Taiba Why did they do it? – India and Pakistan are longtime enemies, still dispute their border in Kashmir What did they get out of it? – 9 out of 10 men killed – Tenth man sentenced to death (carried out November 21, 2012) – Added strain to already poor India-Pakistan relations
Moscow Theater Attack 2002 October 23, 2002 40-50 armed Chechen separatists storm a Moscow Theater taking 850 people hostage. Three days later Russian special forces storm the theater after using a toxic chemical to subdue the terrorists 170 people killed (all the terrorists plus 120- 130 hostages) due to the chemical exposure, 700 injured
Moscow Theater Attack 2002 Who did it? – Chechen separatists Why did they do it? – Demanded that Russian troops leave Chechnya within a week What did they get out of it? – All terrorists killed – Russia increased it military presence in Chechnya – Anger toward the Russian government for killing so many of the hostages and not providing nearby hospitals with the chemical antidote