Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Outside Looking In: Stalkers and Their Victims Doris Hall, Ph.D. California State University Bakersfield.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Outside Looking In: Stalkers and Their Victims Doris Hall, Ph.D. California State University Bakersfield."— Presentation transcript:

1 Outside Looking In: Stalkers and Their Victims Doris Hall, Ph.D. California State University Bakersfield

2 Stalking (CA P.C ) Willfully, maliciously and repeatedly follows or harasses another person, Willfully, maliciously and repeatedly follows or harasses another person, Who makes a credible threat Who makes a credible threat With the intent to place that person in fear for their safety or the safety of their immediate family With the intent to place that person in fear for their safety or the safety of their immediate family

3 Stalking Victims

4 Post Intimate Ex-Husbands Ex-Husbands Ex-wives Ex-wives Ex-boyfriends Ex-boyfriends Ex-girlfriends Ex-girlfriends

5 Prior Acquaintances Acquaintances Acquaintances Neighbors Neighbors Former friends Former friends Co-workers Co-workers Students Students Ex-patients Ex-patients Relatives Relatives Rapists Rapists

6 Unknown Early on in a stalking situation Early on in a stalking situation You know someone is following and/or harassing You know someone is following and/or harassing But you do not know who it is (yet) But you do not know who it is (yet) Most stalkers will let victim know who they are Most stalkers will let victim know who they are

7 False Victimization (FV) Very rare (2%) Very rare (2%) Usually females Usually females Turns out the victim is actually the perpetrator Turns out the victim is actually the perpetrator Attention seeking behavior Attention seeking behavior

8 FVS Red Flags Come forward gleefully Come forward gleefully Wants to share all the details Wants to share all the details Expresses little fright Expresses little fright Seems to be enjoying the attention Seems to be enjoying the attention Encourages police/3 rd parties to set up a “meeting” so they can talk to stalker Encourages police/3 rd parties to set up a “meeting” so they can talk to stalker

9 FVS Red Flags Many FVS have history of self mutilation Many FVS have history of self mutilation Suicide attempts Suicide attempts False claims often follow major life distressors or dramatic moments False claims often follow major life distressors or dramatic moments

10 Stalker Contact Surveillance Techniques Following Following Drive bys Drive bys Appearing at workplace Appearing at workplace Wiretap telephones Wiretap telephones Home surveillance Home surveillance

11 Stalker Contact Harassment Letters Letters Phone calls Phone calls Threats Threats Unwanted gifts Unwanted gifts Mail tampering Mail tampering Cancel utilities Cancel utilities False police reports False police reports

12 Stalker Contact Property Damage Slashed tires Slashed tires Broken windshields Broken windshields Poison outdoor plants Poison outdoor plants Cut up clothing Cut up clothing Break into home Break into home

13 Stalker Contact Violence Occurs in 30% of cases Occurs in 30% of cases Physical assault Physical assault Sexual assault Sexual assault Kidnapping Kidnapping Killing or injuring pets Killing or injuring pets

14 Protective Orders Of the 44% of the respondents who obtained a restraining order Of the 44% of the respondents who obtained a restraining order 20% rated them as effective in controlling stalking behavior 20% rated them as effective in controlling stalking behavior 80% rated them as ineffective 80% rated them as ineffective

15 Restraining Orders Two schools of thought: Yes, always get one Yes, always get one versus versus Maybe, it depends on the situation Maybe, it depends on the situation

16 Restraining orders (cont). “Law Enforcement Tools” “Law Enforcement Tools” If a restraining order is violated it becomes a felony versus a misdemeanor. If a restraining order is violated it becomes a felony versus a misdemeanor.

17 Castle Rock v. Gonzales (2005) U.S. Supreme Court decision (7-2) held that respondent’s 14 th amendment Due Process Clause was not violated by failure of police to enforce restraining order against her estranged husband U.S. Supreme Court decision (7-2) held that respondent’s 14 th amendment Due Process Clause was not violated by failure of police to enforce restraining order against her estranged husband Tragic case in Colorado. Tragic case in Colorado.

18 Dramatic Moments life events which are likely to humiliate or shame to perpetrator, stoke his fury, and increase his risk of violence. life events which are likely to humiliate or shame to perpetrator, stoke his fury, and increase his risk of violence. Examples include but are not limited to: Examples include but are not limited to: stalkers first approach to and rejection by the target stalkers first approach to and rejection by the target Unacknowledged gifts, letters, etc. Unacknowledged gifts, letters, etc. Issuance of restraining order Issuance of restraining order First court appearance First court appearance

19 Tjaden findings 1 in 12 females will be stalked during their lifetime (8-12% of population) 1 in 12 females will be stalked during their lifetime (8-12% of population) 1 in 45 men will be stalked during their lifetime (2-4% of population) 1 in 45 men will be stalked during their lifetime (2-4% of population)

20 Australia 15% of the population will be stalked sometime during their lifetime 15% of the population will be stalked sometime during their lifetime Australia has a less stringent definition of stalking than the U.S. Australia has a less stringent definition of stalking than the U.S.

21 U.S. College students Several studies have found that approximately 27% of college students are stalked during their college years Several studies have found that approximately 27% of college students are stalked during their college years Possible reasons for this finding Possible reasons for this finding 1. Developmental deficits in social skills 2. Structure of college life

22 Routine Activities Theory Three elements: Three elements: Motivated offender Motivated offender Suitable target Suitable target Lack of capable guardianship Lack of capable guardianship

23 Stalkers When compared to other criminals, stalkers tend to be: When compared to other criminals, stalkers tend to be: Older Older Higher IQ Higher IQ More educated More educated

24 Demographic Characteristics of Stalkers Male (75%-87%) Male (75%-87%) Mid to late 30s Mid to late 30s Average or above average intellectual functioning Average or above average intellectual functioning High School or above educational attainment High School or above educational attainment History of failed intimate relationships History of failed intimate relationships Immigration may be a risk factor (10%) Immigration may be a risk factor (10%) Prior psychiatric history Prior psychiatric history

25 Zona’s Typology Erotomania Erotomania AKA Old Maid’s Syndrome AKA Old Maid’s Syndrome Delusional belief that another person, usually of a higher status, is in love with them Delusional belief that another person, usually of a higher status, is in love with them

26 Zona’s Typology Erotomania Subtype: Male Erotomanic Subtype: Male Erotomanic Usually from countries where the genders are kept separate. Usually from countries where the genders are kept separate. Example Tarasoff v. U.C. Berkeley Example Tarasoff v. U.C. Berkeley

27 Zona’s Typology Erotomania Athena Rolando broke into Brad Pitts home Athena Rolando broke into Brad Pitts home Wore his clothes, slept in his bed, fed his dogs Wore his clothes, slept in his bed, fed his dogs What did she get? What did she get?

28 Zona’s Typology Athena Two days in jail Two days in jail 36 months probation 36 months probation 15 days graffiti removal 15 days graffiti removal 3 years psychological counseling 3 years psychological counseling 100 yards restraining order 100 yards restraining order And…. And….

29 Zona’s Typology Athena (continued) A guest on the Leeza Gibbons Show A guest on the Leeza Gibbons Show Howard Stern Show Howard Stern Show And Inside Edition And Inside Edition

30 Zona’s Typology Love Obessional Person knows that the other person is not in love with them…yet… Person knows that the other person is not in love with them…yet… Example John Hinckley, Jr.’s obsession with Jodie Foster Example John Hinckley, Jr.’s obsession with Jodie Foster This type of stalker might be the one that flattens your tire and then offers to fix it. This type of stalker might be the one that flattens your tire and then offers to fix it.

31 Zona’s Typology Simple Obsession Basically everyone else. Basically everyone else. Includes all Includes all

32 Stalker Typology Boone & Sheridan A law enforcement perspective A law enforcement perspective Developed by a profiler in England Developed by a profiler in England N=124 N=124 Four types Four types

33 Boone & Sheridan Expartner Harassment/Stalking 50% 50% Overt threats Overt threats Hostile Hostile Recruits family & friends Recruits family & friends High risk for violence High risk for violence Victim should avoid perpetrator Victim should avoid perpetrator May want to consider relocating May want to consider relocating

34 Boone & Sheridan Infatuation Harassment 19% 19% Target is “beloved” Target is “beloved” Non-malicious ruses Non-malicious ruses Low levels of danger Low levels of danger Perpetrator in teens to mid-life Perpetrator in teens to mid-life Police need to be sympathetic, but explain victim is not interested Police need to be sympathetic, but explain victim is not interested

35 Boone & Sheridan Sadistic Stalker 13% 13% Victim seen as prey Victim seen as prey Initially low level acquaintance Initially low level acquaintance Communications blend of love and threats Communications blend of love and threats Take very seriously Take very seriously Very difficult to stop this stalker Very difficult to stop this stalker Do not give victim false hope Do not give victim false hope Victim should move to secret location & change identity Victim should move to secret location & change identity

36 Boone & Sheridan Delusional Fixation Stalking 15% 15% Incoherent, yet fixated Incoherent, yet fixated High risk for physical and/or sexual violence High risk for physical and/or sexual violence Borderline personality Borderline personality Not responsive to rejection Not responsive to rejection Protective orders do not deter Protective orders do not deter Refer to forensic psychologist Refer to forensic psychologist

37 Mullen & Pathe Typology Rejected Desire for reconciliation Desire for reconciliation Stalking is substitute for lost relationship Stalking is substitute for lost relationship Very intrusive & persistent Very intrusive & persistent

38 Mullen & Pathe Typology Intimacy Seeker Object is their true love Object is their true love Star stalkers Star stalkers

39 Mullen & Pathe Typology Incompetent Intellectually limited Intellectually limited Short duration Short duration Serial stalker Serial stalker

40 Mullen & Pathe Typology Resentful Aggrieved workers Aggrieved workers Feels humiliated Feels humiliated Vendetta for specific person Vendetta for specific person

41 Mullen & Pathe Typology Predatory Exclusively male Exclusively male Physical and sexual assault Physical and sexual assault Often serial killers Often serial killers

42 Spitzberg’s Obsession Relational Intrusion Repeated and unwanted pursuit and invasion of one’s sense of physical or symbolic privacy by another person, either stranger or acquaintance, who desires and/or presumes an intimate relationship Repeated and unwanted pursuit and invasion of one’s sense of physical or symbolic privacy by another person, either stranger or acquaintance, who desires and/or presumes an intimate relationship

43 Spitzberg’s ORI Even mild forms are viewed as moderately threatening Even mild forms are viewed as moderately threatening Behaviors are on a continuum Behaviors are on a continuum At some point they can cross over into stalking behavior At some point they can cross over into stalking behavior Discusses the “Gray Area” of when behavior becomes stalking Discusses the “Gray Area” of when behavior becomes stalking

44 Spitzberg’s ORI Four different motives Four different motives “Lovers” seek to care for and cherish target “Lovers” seek to care for and cherish target “Haters” seek to harm, scare, intimidate, destroy or seek revenge “Haters” seek to harm, scare, intimidate, destroy or seek revenge “Controllers” seek to plan, manipulate and contain or restrain “Controllers” seek to plan, manipulate and contain or restrain “Expressers” display their feelings and inner urges as they occur without cognitive editing “Expressers” display their feelings and inner urges as they occur without cognitive editing

45 Conviction rate of stalkers Approximately 50% of stalking victims report the crime to the police Approximately 50% of stalking victims report the crime to the police 13% of female victims report conviction of stalker versus 9% of male victims 13% of female victims report conviction of stalker versus 9% of male victims If you include other crimes committed by stalker (but not the actual crime of stalking) conviction rates increase to: If you include other crimes committed by stalker (but not the actual crime of stalking) conviction rates increase to: 24% for female victims and 19% for male victims 24% for female victims and 19% for male victims

46 DeBecker’s JACA JACA is a prediction about violence JACA is a prediction about violence Justification for violence Justification for violence Alternatives to violence Alternatives to violence Consequences of violence Consequences of violence Ability to follow through on the violence Ability to follow through on the violence

47 Risk Management Critical part of risk management is frequent and effective communication. Critical part of risk management is frequent and effective communication. If the police or employer takes action which might anger or embarrass the stalker If the police or employer takes action which might anger or embarrass the stalker Target needs to be advised or the stalking victim is put at further risk Target needs to be advised or the stalking victim is put at further risk

48 Red flags (continued) ingratiation with the target’s co- workers or family members ingratiation with the target’s co- workers or family members Chronic lying or excuse making Chronic lying or excuse making Repeat questioning about how the target spends time and with whom Repeat questioning about how the target spends time and with whom

49 Stalking Red Flags Chronic privacy intrusions at work or at home Chronic privacy intrusions at work or at home A need for the stalker to be physically close and to frequently touch the target A need for the stalker to be physically close and to frequently touch the target Prolonged staring at the target without verbalization Prolonged staring at the target without verbalization Repeat and unwanted gift giving Repeat and unwanted gift giving

50 DeBecker says: “No matter what you may have assumed till now, and no matter for what reason you assumed it, I have no romantic interest in you whatsoever. I never will. I expect that knowing this, you’ll put your attention elsewhere, which I understand, because that is what I intend to do.” “No matter what you may have assumed till now, and no matter for what reason you assumed it, I have no romantic interest in you whatsoever. I never will. I expect that knowing this, you’ll put your attention elsewhere, which I understand, because that is what I intend to do.”

51 Psychosocial Impact on Stalking Victims Anxiety (83%) Anxiety (83%) Sleep disturbances (74%) Sleep disturbances (74%) Overwhelming Powerlessness (75%) Overwhelming Powerlessness (75%) Flashbacks/Intrusive recollections (55%) Flashbacks/Intrusive recollections (55%) Fatigue (55%) Fatigue (55%) Weight fluctuation (48%) Weight fluctuation (48%) Headaches (47%) Headaches (47%) Reduced social outings (70%) Reduced social outings (70%) Reduction in work/school attendance (53%) Reduction in work/school attendance (53%) Relocation (39%) Relocation (39%) Change in workplace, school, or career (37%) Change in workplace, school, or career (37%)

52 Risk Management Strategies for Victims Document, document, document Document, document, document Maintain log of all contact Maintain log of all contact Change daily schedule and routes Change daily schedule and routes Alert trusted neighbors, coworkers, family and friends Alert trusted neighbors, coworkers, family and friends Cease all contact with stalker Cease all contact with stalker Code word on all utilities Code word on all utilities Have a safety plan Have a safety plan Carry a disposal camera and a video camera Carry a disposal camera and a video camera


Download ppt "Outside Looking In: Stalkers and Their Victims Doris Hall, Ph.D. California State University Bakersfield."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google