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Written by: Greg Clevenger

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1 Written by: Greg Clevenger

2 The Story Thus Far European nations were competing with each other for: World resources Military strength Political superiority Some nations were upsetting the balance of power European nations were squabbling to see who could be the “Big Kahuna” or the “Top Dog.” They were especially competing with each other for world resources, military strength, and political superiority. Some nations were upsetting the balance of power.

3 Overview Also called War for Independence
Started in 1775 in Lexington and Concord Massachusetts Caused America to separate from Great Britain Ended in 1783 Meanwhile in America, colonists had some ideas of their own. They were ready to leave their parent country and start fresh. The American Revolution, also called the War of Independence, started in The first shots were fired in Massachusetts in Concord and Lexington. It caused America to separate from Great Britain and thus helped create a new nation. The War was fought for eight years and ended in 1783.

4 Major Causes The French and Indian War The Sugar Act The Stamp Act
Colonial Responses to these taxes, followed by repercussions from England… a “snowball” effect. The Revolution wasn’t an impulsive act that just happened overnight. There are multiple historical events leading up to the fighting of the Revolution. The major causes in chronological order are the French and Indian War, the Sugar Act, and the Stamp Act.

5 Rivalry between the French and British Who will control North America?
The French and Indian War—1754 Rivalry between the French and British Who will control North America? British, colonists, and Native American allies fought French and Native American allies Two European nations, France and Great Britain, were fighting over who got custody and control of North America. The colonists and some Native Americans from the Iroquois Confederacy were allied with the British against the French and other Native Americans from the Algonquin and Huron tribes.

6 Great Britain’s national debt nearly doubled during the war
The French and Indian War—1754 Great Britain’s national debt nearly doubled during the war British expected Americans to help pay for protection The war lasted nine years Great Britain hadn’t budgeted for such an expensive war. Great Britain needed money to pay for the war debts, which had nearly doubled. Thus, Great Britain expected the Colonies to help pay for their protection during the French and Indian War. The war lasted for nine years and ended in 1763.

7 The Sugar Act Proclamation of 1763 prohibiting settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains attempt to raise income from the Colonies Duty on sugar and molasses not obtained from Britain Smuggling cases tried in Great Britain Making colonists purchase British-made goods instead of products from the French West Indies was Great Britain’s first plan to regain lost monies. Great Britain passed the Sugar Act, which included a tax on all non-British imports, to strongly encourage colonists to “buy British.” This act was also an attempt to regulate American smuggling. The Act called for a tax of threepence on every gallon of molasses, taxed wine and other goods, and provided for strict enforcement.

8 The Stamp Act—1765 Official government stamp required for EVERY piece of printed paper used – newspapers, documents, playing cards, etc. First internal tax paying for British protection Some British Stamp Agents attacked – tar and feathers The colonists hated the Stamp Act. It deeply impacted and infuriated American lawyers who dealt with legal documents. Many of these lawyers, including Sam and John Adams, were vital contributors to the Revolutionary Movement.

9 Colonial Response Colonists beginning to unite?
1765 – Stamp Act Congress (NY) John Rutledge (SC) attends (p. 54 – 55 in From Colonies to Country) Visits with William Johnson Forms solid relationship with Northerners Belief is that Colonial Assemblies should decide on their taxes Two worlds (North and South) are coming together? What is the difference in slave pop.?

10 More Major Causes The Townshend Acts Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party
The Intolerable Acts Great Britain didn’t stop there. The British continued to pass a series of laws to restrict the colonies and hold them partly responsible, once again, for British protection from possible attacks by the French or native Americans. The Townshend Acts eventually led to the Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party, but the Intolerable Acts, as the colonists nicknamed them, prompted the large-scale revolt by outraged colonists against Great Britain’s King George III.

11 A Taxing King William Pitt – “This is the mother country, they are the children; they must obey, and we prescribe.” Pitt speaks up for American colonies in the 1766 (see p. 50 in From Colonies to Country in the box titled “No Right to Tax”)

12 A question… Is taxation an issue today? What do we get for our money?
Is it worth it?

13 Who are these Americans?
Views from England – Americans are a “mongrel breed” – inferior The reality in America – we are developing a proud, unique spirit of independence and strength King George III wants to teach us a lesson…. Levied taxes, wouldn’t listen to colonists, sent soldiers to America to enforce his wishes (housed and fed by Americans) Not a wise king by most accounts

14 The Townshend Acts—1767 “Champagne Charlie” Import duties on tea, lead, glass, and paint colors Money used to pay royal governors and take care of “Budget Problems” Foreign War = BILLS “No taxation without representation” As stated in Magna Carta (1215) Colonial boycotts lead to repeal in 1770 (except tea) Eng. Merchants were losing money The Townshend Acts, or duties, were the last straw. They were an attempt to get Americans to pay extra taxes on a variety of items most often used in the Colonies, such as tea, red and white lead (paint pigments), glass and paint tints. The money raised by taxation was used to pay royal governors in Great Britain and the colonists had no official representation within the government. “No taxation without representation” became a rallying cry for American revolutionaries. Townshend

15 Boston Diary “Dined with three hundred and fifty Sons of Liberty, at Robinson’s, the Sign of Liberty Tree in Dorchester…. To the Honour of the Sons, I did not see one Person intoxicated, or near it.” —John Adams (1769) This diary excerpt shows the seriousness of the colonists. Listen. Single click the speaker icon to hear the clip >>>>

16 FIREBRANDS SAM ADAMS – troublemaker for English, agitator, Bostonian with Puritan roots, Harvard man Wants people to rule themselves Starts Committees of Correspondence Starts Sons of Liberty Came from $$$... A little lazy with family business affairs…. Motivated by FREEDOM!!

17 FIREBRANDS PATRICK HENRY – Southerner (Anglican), Virginian, country boy “forest-born Demosthenes” Great orator and freedom fighter – ancient Greece Stamp Act is a “threat to liberty” Some see this as treason… “If this be treason, make the most of it.” House of Burgesses is dissolved by the governor Kept meeting in the Raleigh Tavern Eventually had to meet in a Richmond church b/c of danger

You MUST read about his most famous speech (p. 61 – 62 in From Colonies to Country) “GIVE ME LIBERTY or GIVE ME DEATH!”

19 FIREBRANDS THOMAS PAINE – came from England in 1774, lives in the Middle Colonies (Philadelphia), Franklin helped him get set up as a writer/editor, deist with Quaker friends Common Sense (pamphlet) See p. 59 in From Colonies to Country Copies spread like wildfire all over the colonies “These are the times that try men’s souls.”

20 FIREBRANDS THOMAS PAINE – Believed in the American cause
Never took any money for his writings It would demean them Enlisted in the Continental Army Gave a third of his salary to help Washington’s army “We have it in our power to begin the world again.”

21 Boston Massacre—1770 1765 – Quartering Act
1768 – troops move in, led by Gen. Thomas Gage Crowd of colonists threaten British soldiers British open fire killing five Americans Col. Thomas Preston Parliament canceled the Townshend duties It’s hard to believe, but a snowball fight led to the very first casualties of the War. It took place, in the center of Boston, five years before the first actual battle. Americans were throwing snowballs at British sentries. One British soldier fell on ice, causing his rifle to discharge. This accidental firing led to the historical Boston Massacre in which five colonists were killed. Crispus Attucks was the person of color casualty of the Revolutionary War. Parliament canceled the Townshend duties, all except for the tea tax, shortly after.

22 Boston Tea Party—1773 British sold tea even more cheaply than smuggled tea Colonists dressed up as Mohawks Tea was dumped overboard 342 chests King is furious! Tea, along with beer, was the favorite drink in the Colonies. When the British undersold smuggled tea, thus threatening American trade, the Sons of Liberty, an organization of colonists ready for revolution against Great Britain’s king, had a “tea party” at Boston Harbor. The group disguised themselves as Mohawk Indians, crept onto the Dartmouth, the Eleanor, and the Beaver, and dumped 342 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor water. Mixed reaction met the event, and some colonists, including Ben Franklin, thought the tea should be paid for. Many colonists promised to change their drinking habits to something other than British tea, but that movement was short-lived.

23 Tea Party Diary “Last Night 3 Cargoes of Bohea Tea were emptied into the sea. This Morning, a Man of War sails. This is the most magnificent Movement of all.” —John Adams (1773) This piece from Adams’ diary shows how excited the colonists were to strike out against the British.

24 A question…. Are illegal acts ever justified?
This piece from Adams’ diary shows how excited the colonists were to strike out against the British.

25 The Intolerable Acts—1774 King and Lord North (Prime Minister) respond harshly Closed the Port of Boston American town meetings banned British officials in trouble sent to Great Britain for trial ½ citizens are out of work, worry about starvation The British had to retaliate to save face. They couldn’t let this act go unpunished. They responded to the Tea Party by toughening their stand against the Colonies, passing a series of “Intolerable Acts,” which restricted the Colonies in numerous ways, including closing the Port of Boston (essential to the colonists for importing and exporting goods), banning colonists from holding town meetings, and having British officials who had committed crimes sent from the colonies to Great Britain for trial, where they were rarely prosecuted.

26 First Continental Congress
56 Delegates (none from Georgia) Included George Washington, Patrick Henry and John and Sam Adams Direct response to Intolerable Acts Met in Philadelphia – 1774 Fifty-six colonial leaders, including George Washington, Patrick Henry, and Sam Adams, decided to figure out what course of action to take after the Intolerable Acts were passed. They met in Philadelphia in 1774 and became known as the First Continental Congress.

27 Colonists Agreed To: Boycott British goods John Jay (NY)
Arm themselves and form militias Patrick Henry Appeal to the king John Dickinson Resolutions Passed Rights to life, liberty, property The First Continental Congress agreed to the following measures to let Great Britain know they meant business: boycott British goods, arm themselves, and form trained militias, and appeal directly to King George III.

28 King George III Refused To:
Allow American colonist representation in Parliament No respond to colonists’ complaints and official grievances The king seemed to be too dignified and important to be bothered with trivial demands by the menial colonists. King George III, the leader of Great Britain, continued to be bothered by the rebels in the 13 colonies. He refused to allow for colonist representation in Parliament. He did nothing to pacify the American colonists and continued to disregard their requests. King George III

29 American colonists stockpiled weapons in Concord, Massachusetts
“The Shot Heard Round the World” American colonists stockpiled weapons in Concord, Massachusetts 800 British troops marched on Concord Paul Revere: “The British are coming!” Enough was enough, American colonists stockpiled weapons in Concord, Massachusetts, outside Boston. Then fighting began. The first battles occurred outside Boston, in Lexington and Concord. It is often called “The Shot Heard Around the World” as 13 colonies decided to challenge the mighty British Empire. Paul Revere, one of the Sons of Liberty, warned colonists, “The British are coming!”

30 The Armed Militia Known as “Minutemen”
70 Minutemen on the Village Green Uncertain which side fired first 50 Americans killed and 45 wounded or missing 65 British killed and 208 wounded or missing This was truly a mismatched battle from the start, but the outcome was monumental. Farmers and shopkeepers responded to Paul Revere’s call to arms by being ready to fight at “a minute’s notice,” earning them the nickname “Minutemen.” Seventy Minutemen were waiting for the British soldiers at the Village Green, on April 19, Historians are still uncertain about which side fired the first shot. Approximately 50 American colonists were killed and 45 were wounded or missing; the British, on the other hand, lost approximately 65 soldiers and 208 were wounded or missing. The battle was a humiliating defeat for the British, who had more organized, highly trained militias. However, they didn’t use guerilla warfare as the Minutemen chose to do and thus the British were unprepared for ambushes and easily slaughtered.

31 Lexington Diary “At 10 of the clock last night, the King’s troops marched out from the bottom of the common, crossed over to Phips Farm, marched on ’till they came to Lexington.” —Timothy Newell (1775) This is an excerpt from Timothy Newell’s diary. “At 10 of the clock last night, the King’s troops marched out from the bottom of the common, crossed over to Phips Farm, marched on ’till they came to Lexington.” –Timothy Newell (1775)

32 Lexington Famous Quote
“Stand your ground, don’t fire unless fired upon. But if they mean to have a war, let it begin here!” —Captain Parker Many British soldiers felt bad about shooting their countrymen. Listen to Captain Parker’s words. Single click the speaker icon to hear the clip >>>>

33 Second Continental Congress
Decided to officially separate from Britain Committee selected to draft the reasons for separation Thomas Jefferson selected to write document Met in Philadelphia It was time to make the split from Great Britain official. After the initial battles of the war, the Second Continental Congress convened in May 1775 in Philadelphia to call for an official separation from Britain. A committee including Thomas Jefferson was selected to write a draft of all the reasons the colonists wanted complete separation from Britain. Jefferson was chosen by congressional vote to draft the document.

34 The Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson It is the “Birth Certificate of the United States” Document listed rights and grievances against King George III A new country was about to be born. Thomas Jefferson was the unanimous choice to draft the document that would become the “Birth Certificate of the United States,” the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin and John Adams aided Jefferson with Declaration revisions. The document clearly listed colonists’ rights and their grievances against King George III.

35 The Declaration of Independence
John Hancock first to sign in large print Anyone who signed it and was caught would be hanged “We must all now hang together, or most assuredly we will all hang separately." —Benjamin Franklin John Hancock, as President of the Second Continental Congress, wanted the king to know he meant business. He signed the Declaration in very large letters to send a message to King George III, signing in large print so “King George could read it without his glasses.” Any colonist whose signature appeared on the document and who was apprehended by British soldiers or officials would be hanged in public as a warning to other colonists. This possible horrible death was worth the risk to the men who signed The Declaration of Independence. In the words attributed to Benjamin Franklin, “We must all now hang together, or most assuredly we will all hang separately.” Hancock

36 Key Quotes in the Declaration
“We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men are created equal” “That they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights” “That among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” Many of the phrases that Jefferson included in the Declaration of Independence came from the works of the British political philosopher John Locke. Several of the Declaration’s quotes are well-known by most Americans even today. Some edited to match today’s punctuation rules include: We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights and that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Locke

37 Independence Diary —Christopher Marshall (1776)
“There were bonfires, ringing bells, with other great demonstrations of joy upon the unanimity and agreement of the Declaration.” —Christopher Marshall (1776) The Declaration put into words what many revolutionaries were feeling. “There were bonfires, ringing bells, with other great demonstrations of joy upon the unanimity and agreement of the Declaration.” – Christopher Marshall (1776)

38 Choosing Sides Patriots – Supported the Revolution
Loyalists – Americans who supported the King Red Coats/ Lobsterbacks – British Army When teams were divided up to pick sides in the battle, American colonists were split. One-third were for the Revolution; they called themselves Patriots. One-third who named themselves Loyalists were against it. One-third apparently didn’t care to choose sides. When it was all said and done, two major groups of the War emerged. The first lineup included the Patriots fighting against King George III. The second group were the Loyalists teamed up with the king’s Red Coats, called Lobsterbacks, fighting against the Patriots.

39 Five were captured by the British, though eventually released
What Happened to those who Signed? Five were captured by the British, though eventually released Approximately 12 had their homes ransacked and burned One lost his son in the Continental Army Several suffered wounds in various battles Signing the Declaration of Independence wasn’t a task for the weak or fragile. Many of the men were opening themselves and their families up to great suffering and tribulation. It’s interesting to note what happened to some of them. Five were captured by the British Army, approximately twelve had their homes ransacked and burned, one lost his son in the Continental Army, and several suffered wounds in various battles during the Revolutionary War.

40 Revolutionary Armies – The British
British Army most powerful in world Also well-equipped with weapons Highly trained and disciplined for war on land or high seas The British had one of the most powerful armies in the world at this time. The men who served in the British Army of North America were well-equipped with state of the art weapons. They were also well-trained, well-disciplined, and strong. They endured daily drilling which included maneuvers with heavy weapons. One Brown Bess rifle and bayonet weighed about 11 pounds 4 ounces. Their Navy was also world-renowned for its strength in artillery, speed of their warships, and training of their men.

41 Revolutionary Armies Americans shot more accurately
British carried three days provisions British gear weighed about 100 pounds American soldiers may not have had all the high tech toys and creature comforts that the British did, but they had one advantage. The American soldiers were known for their superior rifle technology and sharp shooting skills, even back then. The British Brown Bess rifle was not as accurate as the American Pennsylvania and Kentucky rifles. The British also carried three days provisions, so their gear weighed about 100 pounds. Therefore, although the Americans were outnumbered by the British Army and Navy and had fewer weapons, they were quicker, had better guns, were excellent shots, and had great strength and endurance.

42 Revolutionary Armies – The Americans
Revolutionary Army knew lay of the land Used weapons appropriate for landscape Wore pieces of different uniforms Brown army clothing The Americans were truly rebels in all sense of the word. The American Army knew the lay of the land, useful for guerilla warfare. Most carried tomahawks, not bayonets, which were unwieldy in the heavily wooded areas. The tomahawks and short-blade swords were much more useful during battles in tight quarters than the British troops’ bayonets, giving the Patriots the advantage. They didn’t have the time, money or woman-power to have proper uniforms hand-sewn, so they wore a combination of mix and match uniforms. George Washington, voted in as General Washington to lead the troops, preferred brown army clothing.

43 British Advantages Well-equipped Disciplined Strongest navy
It seems like the British had an unfair advantage over the Americans. They had ample experience in world affairs; as previously mentioned, they were well-equipped, highly disciplined, and had the world’s strongest navy. But the Americans proved to be a different opponent than traditional armies worldwide.

44 American Advantages Accuracy of the rifle Knowledge of the land
Guerilla warfare tactics Superb command The American underdogs weren’t out of the competition. Americans were especially blessed with accuracy in shooting rifles. They had local knowledge of the land and Native American weapons and tactics. From the Native Americans, they had learned how to use the tomahawk and guerilla warfare strategies. Finally, the Americans had a superb military command with General Washington.

45 Patriot Video Single click screen to view video: Watch this clip from The Patriot to see an example of American tactics.

46 British Soldier Quotes
British soldiers faced new challenges “Damn those Americans. They will not stand and fight.” “Settle your affairs at home before leaving for The Colonies; you probably won’t be coming back again.” Different entries in British diaries are quite useful in understanding the difficulties the British faced by fighting Americans as seen in the statements made by British soldiers. One of the quotes are “Damn those Americans. They will not stand and fight.” Listen to the soldiers’ quote. Single click the speaker icon to hear the clip >>>>

47 Military Leaders—American
George Washington: Commander of Americans Forces Nathanael Greene: Top Strategist Henry Knox: Artillery Expert George Washington wasn’t a one-man band. He was assisted by other American military leaders, including top strategist Nathanael Greene and artillery expert Henry Knox, both of whom excelled at a variety of military tasks.

48 Military Leaders—British
General Charles Cornwallis General John Burgoyne All considered America one of the worst places to serve The English didn’t exactly find America an ideal vacation spot to hold a war. Great Britain’s military leaders, such as General Charles Cornwallis and General John Burgoyne often considered America one of the least desirable places to serve. The dense forests and seasonally extreme heat offered major obstacles to traditional warfare.

49 Other Key Players France, Spain, Germany and Poland
The Marquis de Lafayette: Frenchman who supported American cause Huge percentage of American gunpowder came from France Marquis de Lafayette Some historians refer to the American Revolution as a “World War,” because other countries participated in the American Revolution including France, Spain, Germany, and Poland. The leaders of each country either had already claimed part of America or wanted some of the land for themselves. The French, especially, were instrumental in helping the American Army win the War because they had settled parts of the country in the South over a century before the English settlers arrived in the East. The Marquis de Lafayette was a Frenchman who supported the American cause and was a major leading hero of the Revolution. Also, a huge percentage of American gunpowder came from France.

50 Other Key Players Thaddeus Kosciusko: Polish military engineer helping Patriots Baron Friedrich von Steuben: German military commander who helped train American troops In addition to Lafayette, Polish and German leaders helped the Americans. In particular, Polish military engineer Thaddeus Kosciusko and German military commander and trainer of American Army troops Baron Friedrich von Steuben aided the American Army’s cause.

51 The War at Sea Approximately 3,000 men enlisted—America made 13 Frigates Most, if not all, were destroyed or captured Colonial Navy authorized by Continental Congress October 13, 1775 One doesn’t think about the Revolutionary War being fought at sea, but approximately 3,000 men enlisted in the Colonial Navy. America built thirteen Frigates; however, all were destroyed or captured by the British Navy. The Colonial Navy was authorized by the Continental Congress on October 13, 1775.

52 Major Battles Fort Ticonderoga Bunker Hill Trenton
The following battles, in chronological order, were instrumental for America’s victory: Fort Ticonderoga, Bunker Hill and Trenton. All are significant and special in their own way.

53 Fort Ticonderoga—1775 Key strategic location in New York
Ethan Allen and about 125 Green Mountain boys attacked fort The first of these major battles was at Fort Ticonderoga, in New York. It was located in a strategic area in that whoever controlled the fort also controlled vital troop movements. From Ticonderoga the American Army could deter British troops coming down from Canada. Military leader Ethan Allen and about 125 Green Mountain Boys, a branch of the American Army, attacked the fort in May 1775 and were victorious.

54 Ticonderoga The Fort was taken without firing a shot
British officers and women and children were captured Cannons were taken from Ticonderoga to Boston Henry Knox: American Army top artillery commander Major hero of American Revolution This was the battle where there wasn’t a single shot heard around the world. The Fort was taken without firing a shot. British officers and women and children were captured. Cannons were taken from Ticonderoga to Boston. The cannons from Ticonderoga would be dragged over rough terrain and would be used at future battles. Henry Knox was America’s top artillery commander and one of the major heroes of the Revolution.

55 Battle of Bunker Hill - 1775 Bunker Hill located near Boston
Red Coats victorious in third charge Americans ran out of ammunition Moral victory for American Army Another important battle was one that the Americans lost, yet they felt triumphant. The Battle of Bunker Hill, actually fought on Breed’s Hill just outside of Boston in June 1775, inspired the Americans to believe fully that they could stand up to the British Army. Although about 1,400 Army of New England soldiers occupied the defenses, and 2,500 Red Coats unsuccessfully charged the hill numerous times, the Red Coats defeated the American soldiers in the third charge only because the Americans ran out of ammunition. The Americans lost the Battle of Bunker Hill, but considered the battle a moral victory.

56 Bunker Hill Costliest battle for British during whole war
British casualties 1,054 American casualties 441 British began to get nervous Washington took command of the army two weeks after this battle The Battle of Bunker Hill was the costliest battle for the British in the eight-year war. British casualties numbered 1,054, while American casualties were At this point, the British Empire realized they faced a full-scale war with the Americans. Two weeks after this battle, Washington took command of the American Army.

57 Bunker Hill Famous Quote
“Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.” —Israel Putnam The battle on Bunker Hill was furiously violent. The quote “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes” is often attributed to Israel Putnam, but sources are not completely in agreement. Regardless of who actually spoke the words, they have gone on to symbolize any soldier who is calm in the face of a seemingly insurmountable enemy.

58 Battle of Trenton—1776 Surprise attack the day after Christmas
The third significant battle called the Battle of Trenton was a surprise attack by General Washington. Washington and his men crossed the Delaware on Christmas night They caught trained German soldiers, known as Hessians, napping early the next morning. Washington’s brilliant strategy led to a great American victory. Surprise attack the day after Christmas Washington crossed the Delaware Approximately 1000 German soldiers fighting for the British captured

59 Trenton American casualties were four
German leader, Colonel Rall mortally wounded Washington cleared British from central New Jersey The attack on Trenton gave the American Army their first great victory of the war with only four casualties. The Hessians had spent too much time celebrating the holidays and were caught off guard. Colonel Rall, the German leader, was mortally wounded during the surprise attack. Washington cleared the British from central New Jersey.

60 More Significant Battles
Saratoga Winter at Valley Forge A host of other significant battles would take place between 1777 and 1781, including those at Saratoga, the winter at Valley Forge and Yorktown. They included both high and low points for the Americans. Yorktown Were blend of successes and failures for American Army

61 Battle of Saratoga – 1777 The turning point of the war
The biggest American victory at the time Approximately 5,000 British surrender to Washington A major turning point of the war occurred as a result of the Battle of Saratoga in October It was the biggest American victory at the time. British General Burgoyne surrendered to American General Horatio Gates.

62 Burgoyne Diary “From the 20th of September to the 7th of October, the armies were so near, that not a night passed without firing…I do not believe that either officer or soldier ever slept…without his clothes…” —Burgoyne Diary Being prepared is more important than being comfortable as demonstrated in this excerpt. Listen. Single click the speaker icon to hear the clip >>>>

63 Valley Forge – 1777-1778 American Army out of food and clothing
Valley Forge briefly a refuge Supplies ran out and many died Washington appeals to Congress for help Low point for American Army Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, saw the Americans in a battle not against the British but rather against nature. The winter of was a time for Americans to regroup, re-supply, and train. The American Army had run out of food and clothing, and Washington had to appeal to Congress for help because supplies were quickly used up at Valley Forge. Also, the bitter cold added to the deaths of many exhausted, wounded, maimed, malnourished, and dispirited soldiers. The American Army reached a low point during this time.

64 Albigence Waldo “The army which has been surprisingly healthy hitherto, now begins to grow sickly…I am sick—discontented—and out of humor.” —Albigence Waldo (1777) Morale was an important issue for Valley Forge. Listen to Albigence Waldo’s thoughts. Single click the speaker icon to hear the clip >>>>

65 Battle of Yorktown—1781 French blockade aided this final battle
Escape for the British was impossible British General Cornwallis faced American forces approximately twice his size John Paul Jones The end was in sight with the Battle of Yorktown. The Americans were aided by a French blockade making British escape impossible. British General Cornwallis faced American forces approximately twice his size and no where to go.

66 Yorktown Approximately 8,700 British troops surrendered
Pinned in by American and French Naval fleets General Benjamin Lincoln accepted the surrender sword British bands played “The World has Turned Upside Down” The last campaign of the Revolution took place in the south at Yorktown, Virginia, in About 8,700 British troops surrendered when the Americans and the French naval fleet pinned in the British in a series of brilliant strategic maneuvers. General Benjamin Lincoln accepted the surrender sword from a Cornwallis aide. The British bands played “The World Turned Upside Down.”

67 The Treaty of Paris 1783: The Treaty of Paris officially ends the Revolutionary War The Treaty of Paris in 1783 officially ended the American Revolution.

68 The Treaty of Paris—1783 Officially ended the American Revolution
Set many geographic borders, including U.S. and Canada Florida was returned to Spain The official end to the war came two years after Yorktown at the Treaty of Paris. The British commander, Cornwallis, was so humiliated by the defeat that he refused to meet with Washington for the formal surrender and sent an aide instead. The treaty set many geographic borders including that of the United States and Canada. Canada went to the British, but later the French won part of the country. Florida was returned to Spain.

69 The Aftermath: Penalties inflicted on Loyalists
Some Loyalists were “tarred and feathered” and put on ships bound for Canada or Great Britain Penalties awaited those who had been loyal to the king or who did not support the Revolutionaries’ cause. For example, some Loyalists were “tarred and feathered.” Ships waited in numerous harbors to transport Loyalists back to Great Britain or to Canada. Many descendants of former Loyalists reside in Canada today.

70 The Articles of Confederation
Written by John Dickson in 1777 Ratified in 1781 Governed Americans in Paved way for new Constitution The country was in need of a new government and a written document to finalize it. The Articles of Confederation, written by John Dickinson in 1777 and ratified in 1781, served as America’s primary government between Americans created a “more perfect union” with the creation of the United States Constitution.

71 Articles of Confederation Video
Single click screen to view video: This video clip examines the effectiveness of The Articles of Confederation.

72 Concluding Thoughts Eight years Timeless impact
Subject of countless plays and films Maker of heroes Birth of a nation America was officially here to stay. The American Revolution was an eight-year struggle, but the outcome of the struggle would forever change the world. Its events are the subject of countless plays and films. On the battlefields, and in the meeting houses, lives were lost and heroes were made. More importantly, the Revolution led to the birth of a nation unlike any the world had seen before it.

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