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Chapter 4 The Growing Colonies

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1 Chapter 4 The Growing Colonies
Section 1 Did You Know. Tobacco was the first major export from America. By 1617 fifty thousand pounds of Virginia's tobacco crop had been exported to England. New England Colonies (Pages ) A. Immigration map of European immigration was an important factor to the growth of the colonies. Between 1607 and 1775, almost a million people came to live in the colonies.. B. Most New Englanders lived in towns of close knit communities bound by town covenants developed a fairly egalitarian social order. C. The soil in New England made farming difficult. "subsistence farming."

2 Cont. D. Small businesses thrived. Skilled craftspeople, (Johnny Tremain) such as blacksmiths, furniture makers, and printers, started businesses. Women often produced extra candles, garments, and soup to sell or trade. E. Shipbuilding and fishing were important industries. Trade with Northern and Southern Colonies and with the West Indies centered in northern coastal cities. F. The triangular trade interactive map route, developed. G. One of the worst parts of the triangular trade was called the Middle Passage. Amistad Illustration Enslaved Africans Olaudah Equiano Gustavius Vassa

3 Life In Colonial Communities
Thousands of people would abandon their European homes and brave a long, risky sea voyage to North America. They hoped to carve out new lives but would also face unfamiliar challenges in an alien land. The colonists’ leap into the unknown raises a number of questions: How did settlers adapt to their new environments? How did colonial life grow and change? What kinds of political systems were created to provide order and justice? How did settlers provide themselves with goods and services? How did they satisfy religious and cultural needs? We will explore the answers to these questions.

4 Colonial communities were the centers of social, economic and political life. They usually developed along European patterns, although there were variations. Some communities, such as Puritan-led Plymouth and Quaker-founded Philadelphia, were religious-based. Africans, who came to America as slaves or indentured servants, formed their own communities, sometimes within or alongside European ones. Runaway slaves often formed maroon societies. These were remote settlements where they were relatively safe from capture. Some of the maroon communities were secure enough to plant crops and trade with outsiders. Others remained isolated. They based their architecture, customs and language (gullah) on the settlers’ places of origin. (It’s Important-next slide)

5 IT’S IMPORTANT: * European countries had several reasons for colonizing North America, including religion, the desire for land and economic opportunity. * Colonial powers (Spain, Portugal, and England in particular) introduced slavery into North America at an early point in history. * Colonists, especially in British areas of North America, used democratic forms of government. * Physical characteristics of the North American environment influenced settlement patterns and economic activities.

6 OAT (Read, Learn, and Write!)
Before the Revolution Beginning in the 1700s, the colonists began thinking of themselves as different from people in Britain. These differences involved social, economic and political factors. In this lesson, you will review some of these factors. You will also read about the colonies’ first steps toward constitutional democracy, a government whose powers are divided and whose laws represent the will of the people.

7 Economic Factors During the 1600s and 1700s, several European nations became involved in a fierce competition. The goal was to expand their empires and control far-off lands. The force behind this rivalry was mercantilism. This was an economic policy by which a nation tried to sell more than it bought in order to achieve economic independence. One of the best ways to do this was to establish overseas colonies and trading posts. That way, a nation would have a source for raw materials such as lumber, agricultural products, cotton, wool and so on. This was better than having to buy these goods from competitor nations. Colonies provided markets for goods produced at home.

8 Before 1651, the New England colonies traded extensively with Europe, the West Indies and the other colonies. By this time, an influential business community was flourishing in the colonies. Much of their commerce was in the form of triangular trade. In this system, three-cornered trade routes linked colonial ports with southern Europe, the West Indies and Africa. The maps show three important triangular trade routes



11 Rum was produced for trade
Using the triangular trade route shown on Map C , Explain how the following three fundamental economic questions were addressed by the colonists: What goods should be produced _________________________________ How should these goods be produced ___________________________________________________________ Who should receive the goods_________________________________________________. Rum was produced for trade Rum was created from molasses from the West Indies African slave traders received the rum for slaves that would be traded for molasses in the West Indies

Economics: is the study of how humans use scarce resources to produce goods and services and then distribute those goods and services to people in society. Following is a list of important economic concepts. Keep them in mind as you read about the economic factors that led to the Revolutionary War. Goods and Services: products such as food, clothing and housing, as well as services provided by teachers, lawyers, doctors and so on: anything that is bought and sold Resources: land, labor and capital (accumulated goods and wealth) Market: the interaction among buyers and sellers of any good or service Supply and Demand: economic factors that determine how much of a product is produced and what the price of the product will be; if the demand for a product increases, prices will rise and more of the product will be produced; as the supply of the product increases, demand decreases and prices fall Scarcity: the idea that resources are limited but wants and needs are not Interdependence: the condition that exists when countries depend on each other to meet their wants and needs; different countries have different resources so they trade with each other to obtain goods they wouldn’t otherwise have “…he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other eases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention.” Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations

13 To protect British trade, Parliament passed a series of laws called the Navigation Acts, the first of which was passed in Some of these laws required the colonists to trade mostly with Britain or with other British colonies. Others required the colonies to produce certain goods that Britain needed, such as iron and tobacco. Furthermore, colonial merchants could not import goods from European nations unless they were sent to Britain first. Goods were also required to be transported in British ships. One law even required goods to be shipped to Britain before being sent from one colony to another.

14 Colonial trade operated smoothly for more than a hundred years, mainly because the Navigation Acts were not strictly enforced. Britain did not work very hard to prevent smuggling because it was getting all of the raw materials it needed from the colonies. In addition, Britain was busy with wars in Europe and governing British citizens at home. As a result, Britain allowed the colonies the freedom to develop without much interference.

15 Royal governors appointed by the king regulated trade, but the colonists controlled local affairs. Each colony had its own elected assembly except for a few years in the l680s. It was not until the 1760s that Britain began enforcing its trade laws. This followed four colonial wars with the French over territory and the fur-trading industry. The wars left Britain heavily in debt. The British felt that the colonies should help pay for the cost of the wars.

16 Scarcity is an economic concept that states two things, one: the more limited a resource the greater its value, and two; the more essential a resource the greater its value. In short, the abundance, or scarcity, of an item, coupled with the essential nature of that item determines its value. Britain’s Navigation Acts attempted to maintain control over her colonies’ resources. In effect, the Navigation Acts created for Britain a monopoly over vital colonial natural resources creating an artificial scarcity and guaranteeing a favorable balance of trade for the English motherland and a supply of hard currency (gold and silver) at home. Quick Review 1: Using the economic concept of scarcity, explain why Britain, through the Navigation Acts, prohibited the colonies from shipping certain resources (such as sugar, cotton and tobacco) anywhere except to Britain Write—Now! (8 minutes)

17 II. The Middle Colonies map (Pages 103-104)
Letters From An American Farmer by J. Hector St. John De Crevecoeur What then is the American, this new man?...He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds.. (from "Letter III," 1782) A later time period I know, But the process of creating this “new man” was already in process long before De Crevecoeur commented upon him. II. The Middle Colonies map (Pages ) Farms in these colonies were larger than in New England. The port cities of New York and Philadelphia became busy with the wheat (their Cash Crop) and live­stock that was shipped from them. Lumbering, mining, small-scale manufacturing, and home-based crafts were major economic activities of the region. Religious and cultural differences existed here. Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville Democracy in America

18 Cash crops could easily be sold in both the colonies and in Europe
Cash crops could easily be sold in both the colonies and in Europe. They brought in revenue to the seller. The larger the land and the harvest from that land, the more the revenue increased. What was the importance of cash crops?

19 III. The Southern Colonies map (Pages 104-105)
The economies of the Southern Colonies were dependent upon tobacco in Maryland and Virginia and on rice (most profitable crop) in South Carolina and Georgia. B. Growing tobacco photo and rice was dependent upon slave labor C. Tobacco and rice were grown on plantations. A plantation, Mt Vernon or large farm, was often on a river so crops could be shipped easily by boat D. Most of the large Southern plantations were located in the Tidewater, a region of flat. Low-lying plains along the seacoast. Some people in the South settled in the backcountry region, toward the Appalachian Mountains. Small farms grew corn and tobacco. The independent small (Great Wagon Road) farmers out­numbered the large plantation owners. Even at this early date it was becoming evident that the North and South were moving along divergent paths of social and economic development.

20 Answers should include discussion of the needs of running a small farm versus a large plantation, the desire to have a life of wealth versus a more middle-class existence, the desire to control versus being independent…and so on. Would you have wanted to be a backcountry farmer or a plantation owner? Give your reasons.

21 IV. Slavery (Page 106) Slavery was a main reason for the economic success of the South. It was criticized as being inhumane. Some colonists did not believe in slavery, nor would they own enslaved people. Most of the enslaved Africans slave market photo lived on plantations. Many suffered cruel treatment. All of the Southern Colonies had slave labor and slave codes, or strict rules that governed the enslaved Africans. Although many enslaved Africans saw their families torn apart and suffered from harsh treatment, they also developed their own culture as enslaved people. This was based on their West African homelands.

22 "I believe a time will come when an opportunity will be offered to abolish this lamentable evil." -- Patrick Henry, letter to Robert Pleasants, January 18, 1773 (Virginia) IV. Cont. Some were given the opportunity to learn trades and become skilled workers. If they were lucky enough to buy their freedom, they developed communities with other free African Americans. The debate over slavery quotes later ended in a war with the North against the South. "Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than that these people are to be free." -- Thomas Jefferson, Autobiography, 1821 "[The Convention] thought it wrong to admit in the Constitution the idea that there could be property in men." -- James Madison, Records of the Convention, August 25, 1787 (Virginia) "There is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a plan adopted for the abolition of it." -- George Washington, letter to Robert Morris, April 12, 1786 (Virginia) "Every measure of prudence, therefore, ought to be assumed for the eventual total extirpation of slavery from the United States ... I have, throughout my whole life, held the practice of slavery in ... abhorrence." -- John Adams, letter to Robert Evans, June 8, 1819 (Massachusetts)

23 Social Order The colonial social order was hierarchical (based on classes). Its highest class, made up of landowners, wealthy merchants, doctors, lawyers and ministers, was called the “gentry.” Typically, only male members of this class could vote. Other classes included the “middling sort”—these were farmers and shopkeepers who owned property but were not rich—and the “lower sort,” unskilled laborers and tenant farmers. Below these classes were indentured servants as you learned in earlier lessons, these were people who agreed to work without pay for a certain number of years in exchange for passage to America. Along with them, at the bottom, were slaves.

24 Social classes in the colonies were much less rigid than those in Europe. A former indentured servant could become a craftsman or merchant. He might also buy land; His sons could become doctors and lawyers. Nevertheless, the class structure created social unfairness. Wealthy colonists were able to make decisions that affected everyone else. Unfair economic conditions and unequal treatment of blacks also arose from the social order.


26 Cont. On the other hand, the colonists’ situation promoted interdependence. No single group could survive in the New World without cooperating with others. The colonists’ goals also required people to think of the welfare of the community as a whole rather than only individual rights or concerns. For example, the Puritan laws of New England required everyone to work hard or face fines. Hard work by every member of the community was needed to ensure the colony’s survival. The good of the whole community was more important than the wants of a single person.

27 Influence of Religion Religion played an important role in colonial communities. In addition to a strict work ethic, Puritans had a deep respect for their religious beliefs. They required everyone in their colonies to follow them. Unlike the Puritans, the Quakers encouraged tolerance of many religions in the Pennsylvania colony, even Judaism and Catholicism. Disagreements among the Puritans caused Roger Williams to leave Massachusetts and found Rhode Island for greater tolerance. The Puritans were the greatest influence in New England Catholics fled the Protestant countries of Europe to avoid persecution. In the French and Spanish colonies, the Catholic church was the official religion. Other groups, such as the French Huguenots, were more welcome in the English colonies than in their own countries.

28 In all of the colonies, the laws of the one church or another governed behavior. These laws were enforced by the courts. Church buildings were often centers for social gatherings. Churches also provided social services such as education and care for the poor. In addition, churches kept records related to births, marriages and deaths. These records are an important source for historians.

29 it promoted interdependence.
Quick Review 2. What was the greatest weakness of the colonial social structure? it promoted interdependence. Its class system created social unfairness. It demanded cooperation and a strong work ethic. It promoted community consciousness over individual rights.

30 Colonial Families In colonial America, the basic social and economic unit was the nuclear family (husband, wife and children). Households often included three generations of a family, and sometimes servants and slaves. Everyone worked together to support the household under the leadership of the father. In turn, he was responsible for their well-being. Authority and obligation played a large part in the colonial family: Every person had to obey his or her father and grandfathers. Everyone was also expected to assist any family member in need.

31 Each member of the family had a role in supporting the household
Each member of the family had a role in supporting the household. The father managed the finances and did much of the work. (This was true whether he was a farmer, a merchant or another kind of worker.) The mother might work alongside her husband, but she was also responsible for the household. Her tasks included making such things as soap and candles, weaving cloth, sewing clothes and preparing food. Children went to school but were also expected to help at home and on farms. Servants and slaves (especially in the Southern colonies) not only worked on the farm or plantation but also helped care for children and the household.

32 Quick Review 2: How did family roles help the colonists survive?
___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ The family unit was the basic structure of colonial society. Each family member performed certain vital functions that were essential in guaranteeing that family’s survival. Growing food, hunting, cooking, making implements and other tasks were divided among the members and expected to be performed.

33 Geographic Influences
The physical environment of colonial America was harsh. It had an effect on the way colonists were able to travel, communicate, settle and use resources. Travel was difficult because roads were usually narrow trails. (some early roads followed animal paths called traces or were merely corduroy roads) There were bridges and many thick forests. Because land travel was slow and difficult, long journeys were made by boat on rivers, lakes and coastal Atlantic waters. Most colonists did not travel very far from home. Only traders and wealthy people made long trips.

34 Communication also was difficult
Communication also was difficult. Most colonists got news by word of mouth. They also wrote letters, although regular mail service was not common. Newspapers did not become widely available until the mid 1700s. In most towns, a town crier read news to groups of people. The environment also affected how settlers could build their new homes and businesses. When the colonists first began to build houses, they tried to use European designs. These included roofs made of thatch (a combination of reeds and straw). But wood was so plentiful that the colonists soon turned to it as their chief building material

Waterways were of great importance to colonists in determining where to settle. The soil surrounding lakes and rivers was often good for farming. Rivers were also a means of transportation, and they became more important for shipping goods as the colonies developed. A riverside settlement was easier to defend against an attack; at least one side of the colony would be protected by the river. The resources available to colonists were in many ways better than those in Europe. North America’s rivers and coastal waters were teeming with fish. The woodlands were full of game. In the Middle Atlantic and Southern colonies, the soil was rich and produced good harvests. After the first few years of struggle, the colonists’ farms supplied them with more food than anywhere in the world.

36 Quick Review 4: How did the physical environment affect the development of colonial life?
A. Native American trails made it easy for the settlers to travel and send letters. B. Long journeys were made only by traders and wealthy settlers using boats. . C. Settlers were unable to find suitable building materials for their houses. E. Food supplies were too poor to support the colonists without imports from Europe.

37 Political Systems In England’s colonies, the governments operated in similar ways. Each colony was managed by a governor appointed by the king or proprietor (the person granted ownership of a colony). A legislature elected by the adult male landowners also had a role in government. In every colony but Pennsylvania and Delaware, the legislature had two houses. (bicameral ) (These were modeled after England’s Parliament.) The lower house was elected by the colonists and was known as a colonial assembly. The upper house was generally elected by the lower house or appointed by the king or proprietor. Only in Connecticut and Rhode Island were the upper house members elected by the citizens. All colonial laws had to be approved by the English government, and all colonial governments were required to enforce English laws.

38 The New England colonies (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire) also established a form officially known as a town meeting. Adult male landowners would meet once or twice a year to handle the public business of a city or town. This allowed New Englanders a high level of participation in their government. Many New England towns still hold yearly town meetings today. In some places, these meetings have been held regularly for more than 300 years.

39 Quick Review 5: Which of the following is not an issue that would have normally been voted on in a town meeting? A. fixing the street in front of the town hall B. hiring a constable to patrol the streets after dark C. digging a new well to provide water for homes D. raising a tax to pay the colony’s militia expenses

40 Landholding System A landholding system is a way of defining land ownership Geography and the way communities were organized socially affected the landholding system used in a place. In New England, land was given to groups of settlers who wanted to form a new town. Some of the land would be set aside for public buildings. The rest was divided evenly among the settlers so that each would have land for a house, garden and cow shed, as well as a plot of farmland. Many New England towns have town commons.

41 New Netherland used a patroonship system
New Netherland used a patroonship system. Wealthy settlers known as patroons were granted huge tracts of land. In exchange, they were responsible for building colonies at their own expense. Tenants paid patroons in goods, services or money, and after 10 years, a patroon had the right to tax his tenants. In the Southern colonies, the large-scale tobacco economy encouraged the development of the plantation system.

42 "All servants imported and brought into the Country
"All servants imported and brought into the Country...who were not Christians in their native Country...shall be accounted and be slaves. All Negro, mulatto and Indian slaves within this dominion...shall be held to be real estate. If any slave resist his master...correcting such slave, and shall happen to be killed in such correction...the master shall be free of all if such accident never happened." The codes , went even further. These law imposed harsh physical punishments, since enslaved persons who did not own property could not be required to pay fines. It stated that slaves needed written permission to leave their plantation, that slaves found guilty of murder or rape would be hanged, that for robbing or any other major offence, the slave would receive sixty lashes and be placed in stocks, where his or her ears would be cut off, and that for minor offences, such as associating with whites, slaves would be whipped, branded, or maimed. Quick Review 6: Would you have enforced the slave codes as a white colonist living in the South during this period in history? Why or why not? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

43 2007 OAT Question 4. Which right found in the Magna Carta (1215) is also included in the United States Constitution? A. right to vote B. right to a trial by jury C. freedom of the press D. freedom of assembly

44 Chapter 4, Section 2 English Colonial Rule (Pages 108-109)
In the mid-1600s, the English monarchy saw Charles II and then James II rule. James II (catholic) try to tighten royal control over the colonies, but in 1688 he was forced out by the English Parliament. Mary, (protestant) his daughter, and her husband, William, ruled. This power of elected representatives over the monarch was known as the Glorious Revolution.

45 I. cont. no royal interference with the law. Though the sovereign remains the fount of justice, he or she cannot unilaterally establish new courts or act as a judge. no taxation by Royal Prerogative. The agreement of parliament became necessary for the implementation of any new taxes. only civil courts, not Church courts, are legal freedom to petition the monarch without fear of retribution no standing arm may be maintained during a time of peace without the consent of parliament. no royal interference in the freedom of the people to have arms for their own defence as suitable to their class and as allowed by law (simultaneously restoring rights previously taken from Protestants by James II) no royal interference in the election of members of parliament the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament "grants and promises of fines or forfeitures" before conviction are void no excessive bail or "cruel and unusual" punishments may be imposed English Bill of Rights 1689 The English Bill of Rights, signed by William and Mary in 1689, guaranteed certain basic rights to all citizens. This document inspired the creation of the American Bill of Rights. England passed a series of laws called the Navigation Acts. Summary They kept the colonies from sending certain products outside of England and forced the colonists to use English ships when shipping. This is an example of mercantilism in effect Some colonists began smuggling, or illegally trading with other nations. They did not want to trade only with England. This illegal trade was the beginning of the economic conflict between England and the colonies.

46 PoIitical Factors The English. Civil War ( ) was fought over whether royal power should be limited It eventually led to a revolution in English government It also had a great impact on how the colonists would come to view English control of the colonies. Another revolution had an important impact on the colonists as well The Glorious Revolution ( ) resulted in the overthrow of King James II of Britain He had been strengthening English control in the colonies. Under James II, elected legislatures were abolished. Town meetings were also restricted. The English overthrew James and crowned William III arid Mary II as their new rulers. William and Mary accepted a Bill of Rights that granted civil and political rights to the people It also limited the power of the king and queen by strengthening Parliament.

47 When news reached America that King James had been dethroned, the colonists overthrew the royal governor of New England and sent him back to England They demanded the right to have elected legislatures again. As English citizens, why shouldn’t they have the same rights that the people In England had won during the Glorious Revolution? In fact, the new king did restore elected legislatures to the colonies, and this gave colonists more freedom to govern themselves.

48 Quick Review 7: The overthrow of James II, who had increased English control over the colonies, enabled the colonists (1.) to gain back a great deal of the self government and local control they had enjoyed prior to James. With the new monarchs William and Mary and the (2.) English Bill of Rights they had to agree to in order to assume the throne, those Englishmen living in the (3.) Americas will be encouraged to seek the same rights as other Englishmen living in the mother country. Why was the Glorious Revolution important for the colonies? (3 reasons) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

49 The instrument of projecting British power
First Rate Ship of the Line were three deck battleships that had at least 90 and up to 140 guns, displaced more than 2,000 tons and carried approximately 800 crewmen. The term 'ship of the line' derives from the standard battle formation where major warships organized themselves into a line of fire after which they opened up with an awesome cannon broadside upon the enemy. The instrument of projecting British power The Man-Of War Although this film takes place in May 1805, and is based upon a series of novels set during the Napoleonic Wars (and is mostly fictional in its details) it is a wonderful look at what life was like aboard an English warship. It also accurately portrays exactly how dangerous and brutal naval warfare was during he age of sail. HMS Victory in 1884, the only surviving example of a ship-of-the-line

50 Colonial Government text (Pages 70-7 7)
A. There were three types of colonies by the 1760s: British Empire map 1. The Charter Colonies of Connecticut and Rhode Island. They were established by a group of settlers who had been given a charter, or a grant of rights and privileges. 2. The Proprietary Colonies of Delaware, Maryland, image and Pennsylvania. only known portrait of Wm.Penn Britain granted land to proprietors to start these colonies. 3. The Royal Colonies of Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. They were ruled directly by Britain (Privy Council and Board of Trade). Voting rights were granted only to white men who owned property. Women, indentured servants, men without land, and African Americans could not vote.

51 III. An Emerging Culture (Pages 72-73)
A. The return of strong religious values in the 1720s through the 1740s led to the Great Awakening. “Sinners in the Hands…” J. Edwards image/quote "All who are truly religious are not of this world, they are strangers here, and belong to heaven; they are born from above, heaven is their native country, and the nature which they receive by this heavenly birth, is a heavenly nature, they receive an anointing from above; that principle of true religion which is in them, is a communication of the religion of heaven; their grace is the dawn of glory; and God fits them for that world by conforming them to it."s B. The family was the foundation of colonial society. Men were the formal heads of the households. They managed the farms and represented the family in community matters.

52 III. continued C. Women also participated in decision making and worked in the fields or on farms. In the cities and towns, they worked outside the home for wealthy families, as teachers, nurses, or as shopkeepers. However, they could not vote. D. Education was valued in the colonies. Many communities established schools. By 1750 the literacy rate in New England was approximately 85 percent for men and 50 per­cent for women. E. Many schools were run by widows or unmarried women who taught in their homes. Some schools in the Middle Colonies were run by Quakers or by other religious groups. F. Harvard was the first college, established in 1636 by Puritans. The early colleges were founded to train ministers.

53 III. more G. The Enlightenment, a movement that began in Europe in the 1750s, influenced the colonists. It spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society. Ideas spread though newspapers, lectures, and organizations. People begin to decide moral issues for themselves- without relying upon “authorities”. H. The foundation for freedom of the press came when New York Weekly Journal publisher John Peter Zenger was sued, accused of libel for printing articles criticizing the royal governor of New York. Zenger argued free speech was a basic right of the people. The jury based its decision on whether the articles were true, not offensive. Zenger was found not guilty.

54 Did You Know ? George Washington lost most of his teeth over the years by cracking Brazil nuts between his jaws. His first set of dentures was made from COW'S teeth and his second set from hippopotamus tusk. Washington's dentures were held in place by being attached to his one remaining natural tooth. Light from a red laser scans a resin reproduction of the 1789 lower denture originally carved from Hippopatamus ivory for George Washington.

55 I. British-French Rivalry (Pages 116-118)
Madras India returned To Britain in exchange For Louisbourg by Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of Austrian Succession Called “King George’s War” in NA 1748 A. The French and British rivalry grew as both countries expanded into each other's territories. B. In the 1740s, the British fur traders built a fort at Pickawillany Old Britain view of fort in the Ohio River country. In 1752, the French attacked this fort and drove the British out. The French built several more forts along the Ohio River valley to protect what they claimed to be their fur trading territory. C. Also in the 1740s, French troops raided towns in Maine and New York. The British captured the French fortress at Louisbourg, image north of Nova Scotia, in retaliation. Later they returned Louisbourg to France. D. Many Native Americans helped France since the French and Native Americans had a better relationship. The Native Americans often raided British settlements.

56 I. cont. E. The Iroquois Confederacy reading on govt. was the most powerful Native American group in the East. It consisted of five nations: 1. the Mohawks 2. the Seneca 3. the Cayuga 4. the Onondaga Canassatego- gives Franklin the idea for a unified colonial govt. 5. the Oneida They remained independent until the mid-1700s when the British gained certain trading rights in the Ohio Valley.

57 Benjamin Franklin as an Indian commissioner had much contact with the Iroquois. In the pre-Revolutionary period, he was advocating a type federal union of the colonies, as no European model was found to be suitable, Franklin's used the Iroquois nation as a model. Many key ideas for a new form of government, federalism, equality, natural rights, freedom of religion, property rights, can perhaps be traced to this model. At the 1744 treaty council, according Franklin, Canassatego, the speaker for the great council at Onondaga, recommended that the colonies form a union in common defense under a federal government: "We are a powerful Confederacy, and by your observing the same methods our wise forefathers have taken, you will acquire much strength and power; therefore, whatever befalls you, do not fall out with one another."

58 Notes Chapter 4, Section 3 II. American Colonists Take Action (Pages ) A. In 1753 the Virginia governor Robert Dinwiddie sent George Washington into the Ohio Valley to push the French out. He was not successful against the French. B. In the spring of 1754, Washington returned as a lieutenant with a militia of 160 men to build a fort near present-day Pittsburgh.

59 C. Even though he was defeated, Washington's fame spread throughout the colonies and Europe because he stood up to the French. A group of representatives met in Albany, New York, to discuss the possible war threat and to defend themselves against the French. The representatives adopted the Albany Plan of Union image suggested by Benjamin Franklin. quotes E. The series of clashes that occurred was called the French and Indian War by the colonists because they were fighting two wars-one with the French and the other with the Native Americans who were allies of the French.

60 Did You Know? After Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa, experienced several key defeats in his rebellion against the English, he signed a peace treaty and was eventually pardoned for his crimes. 1769 he was assassinated by a Peoria Indian

61 The British Take Action (Pages 727-724)
A. Early in the war, the French appeared to be winning control of the American land. 1. They had built forts throughout the Great Lakes region and the Ohio River valley. 2. They had strong alliances with the Native Americans. This allowed them to control land from the St. Lawrence River in Canada south to New Orleans. 3. The British colonists had little help from Britain in fighting the French.

62 B. In 1754 Great Britain sent General Edward Braddock to be commander in chief of British forces in America and drive the French out. Braddock killed. C. This defeat spurred Britain to declare war on France. The Seven Years War began in French, British, and Spanish forces clashed in North America, Europe, Cuba, the West Indies, India, and the Philippines. D. During the early years, the British were not successful. After William Pitt (the elder), prime minister of Britain, came to power--things changed. 1. Britain paid for war supplies, which ultimately put them into debt. 2. Pitt sent British troops to conquer French Canada. In 1758 the British under Jeffrey Amherst Amherst smallpox-infected blankets recaptured the fort at Louisbourg. The fort guarding the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. 3. New Englanders, led by British officers, captured Fort Frontenac. History/images 4. British troops forced the French to abandon Fort Duquesne, map which was renamed Fort Pitt.

63 II. The Fall of New France (Page 124)
A. The continued British victories led to the downfall of the French as a power in North America. In 1759 1. British captured several French islands in the West Indies 2. British defeated the French in India 3. British destroyed a French fleet in Canada 4. British under James Wolfe surprised and defeated the French army at the Battle of Quebec. Reading/maps Quebec was the capital of New France and a place that was thought to be impossible to attack.

64 B. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the war. In the treaty,
1. France kept some of its islands in the West Indies but gave Canada and most of its lands east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain 2. Great Britain gained Florida from Spain 3. Spain received lands west of the Mississippi River (the Louisiana Territory) and the port of New Orleans C. North America was now divided between Britain and Spain with the Mississippi River as the boundary.

65 Impact of the French and Indian War
In the spring of 1754, the French and British went to war in the colonies for the fourth time over land rights. (Americans this the French and Indian War. Many historians prefer the name used by the British and Canadians the Seven Years War.) In June, the colonists organized a meeting in Albany, New York. It was known as the Albany Congress. The purpose of the meeting was to try to win the loyalty of the Iroquois tribes against the French. At that meeting, Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union.

66 Under this plan, the colonies would raise money and create an army to meet French threats. Franklin’s plan was not a plan for independence. It was only meant to unify the colonies as ports of the British empire, and it was never put into practice. Still, for the first time, the colonists began to think of themselves as a unified whole. France lost the war and gave up almost all of its territory in the Americas. Britain received French lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain, which had not been involved in the war, added French lands west of the Mississippi River to its empire. It also gave Florida to Britain.

67 The Treaty of Paris officially ended the war in 1763
The Treaty of Paris officially ended the war in As a result of it, Britain became the main power in North America. The war had also transformed the colonists into experienced soldiers. It had taught them the importance of unity and cooperation. No longer threatened by the French, the colonists became less dependent on Britain for protection. They didn’t see each colony as having its own isolated identity anymore. New relationships with European powers led to the development of a unified colonial Identity.

68 Quick Review 8: What was one result of the French and Indian War?
The Spanish became the dominant power in North America. B. The French became the dominant power in North C. The colonists became more dependent on Britain for manufactured goods D. The colonists became more confident in their ability to defend the colonies.

69 Quick Review 10

70 III. Trouble on the Frontier (Page 125)
A. The British victory left the Native Americans without their ally and main trading partner. The British raised prices of goods, did not pay the Native Americans for their land, and began new settlements in western Pennsylvania. Pontiac was a chief of an Ottawa village near Detroit. He put together an alliance of Native American peoples in 1763. C. The war ended in August 1765 when Pontiac heard that the French signed the Treaty of Paris D. To prevent more fighting and westward expansion, Britain established the Proclamation of 1763. A forewarned Maj. Gladwin greets Pontiac and his warriors with his troops on alert. Seeing that the English were prepared, Pontiac did not give the attack signal.

71 What could Britain have done differently so as not to
anger the colonists with the Proclamation of 1763? …amend the proclamation when they saw how angry some of the colonists were or working out contracts with the speculators to appease them. The fact remained that Britain wanted to control its colonies and was not looking to appease them because of the proclamation.

72 Pick one of the following essay questions to prepare and answer.
How did the navigation Acts affect the colonists? Why were the native Americans so important in the clash between the French and British? Who had the advantage with the Native Americans and why?

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