Presentation on theme: "7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes? Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation."— Presentation transcript:
7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes? Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation of tropical, temperate, and cold deserts, grasslands, and forests, and largely determine their locations.
Climate Affects Where Organisms Can Live Biomes characterized by having similar: Climate Precipitation Temperature Soil Plants Animal Latitude and elevation Biomes are mosaics of patches Do not have distinct boundaries (ecotone)
The Earth’s Major Biomes
Generalized Effects of Elevation and Latitude on Climate and Biomes
Natural Capital: Average Precipitation and Average Temperature as Limiting Factors
Biome: Deciduous Forest Climate Temperature: Temperate & Tropical Precipitation: 75 – 250 cm per year Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Hardwood (Deciduous) Trees Loose leaves in winter to conserve energy
Biome: Deciduous Forest Major Locations North America, Europe, Australia, and Eastern Asia Characteristic Fauna Black bear, white-tail deer, squirrels, raccoons, opossums
Biome: Deciduous Forest Soil Characteristics Very rich soil with high organic content Other Important Facts Slow decomposition rates in the forest lead to high soil quality
Temperate Rain Forest in Washington State, U.S.
Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Forests
Biome: Tropical Rainforest Climate Temperature: Tropical Precipitation: 200 – 400 cm per year Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Broadleaf Evergreen trees Large leaves to catch rare sunlight Vines, epiphytes Get moisture from the air, roots not in ground All plants adapted to LOW light
Biome: Tropical Rainforest Major Locations South America, West Africa, Southeast Asia Characteristic Fauna Monkeys, insects, amphibians, tropical birds
Biome: Tropical Rainforest Soil Characteristics POOR soil due to rapid rate of decomposition Other Important Facts Stratification provides niches for specialized species – leads to high biodiversity
Stratification of Specialized Plant and Animal Niches in a Tropical Rain Forest
Biome: Grasslands Climate Temperature: Tropical & Temperate Precipitation: 10 – 60 cm per year Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Sod-forming grasses which are adapted to fire Grasses store most of their biomass in the roots, this ensures their recovery after a fire, and after grazers have eaten their tops
Biome: Grasslands Major Locations North American plains (prairies), Russia (steppes), South Africa (velds), Argentina (pampas), Africa (savanna) Characteristic Fauna Grazers & Browsers
Biome: Grasslands Soil Characteristics Rich Soil Has made the grasslands prime for human interference by agriculture Other Important Facts Fire adapted Large animals
Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Grasslands
Monoculture Crop Replacing Biologically Diverse Temperate Grassland
Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest) Climate Temperature: Cold Precipitation: cm (mostly in summer) Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Coniferous evergreens Small needle-shaped leaves with waxy coating to help conserve energy loss. Stay green all year because of relatively low solar intensity year-round
Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest) Major Locations Northern North America (Canada), Northern Eurasia Characteristic Fauna Bears, wolves, moose, lynx, and burrowing rodents
Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest) Soil Characteristics Soil is thin and nutrient poor because of the acidic tannins in pine needles Other Important Facts California’s Giant Redwoods (Sequoias)
Biome: Tundra Climate Temperature: Cold (grassland) Precipitation: Less than 25 cm Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Herbaceous plants Low-growing plants, dwarf shrubs, lichens
Biome: Tundra Major Locations Northern latitudes of North America, Europe and northern Eurasia Characteristic Fauna Caribou (reindeer), migratory waterfowl, arctic wolf, arctic fox, musk oxen, snowy owl
Biome: Tundra Soil Characteristics Permafrost!! Very thin, fragile soil Other Important Facts Most annual growth occurs in the 7-8 week long summer Melting permafrost releases CH 4 and CO 2 : both greenhouse gasses!!
Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest) Climate Temperature: Temperate Precipitation: 50 – 75 cm (mostly in winter) Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Small trees with large hard leaves, spiny shrubs, adapted to fire Burn easily Seeds germinate when exposed to hot fire
Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest) Major Locations Western North America, the Mediterranean Characteristic Fauna Mule deer, chipmunks, jackrabbits, lizards, variety of birds
Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest) Soil Characteristics Shallow and infertile soil Other Important Facts Prone to fire in dry season Desirable climate w/ risks!
Chaparral Vegetation in Utah, U.S.
Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold) Climate Temperature: Tropical, Temperate, Cold Precipitation: Less than 25 cm Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Cactus and other low- water adapted plants (Succulents)
Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold) Major Locations 30 North and South of the Equator Characteristic Fauna Camels, reptiles, rodents (kangaroo rat – never drinks water)
Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold) Soil Characteristics Coarse texture (sandy) not good at holding moisture or nutrients Other Important Facts Fragile ecosystem due to Slow plant growth Low species diversity Slow nutrient recycling Lack of water
Climate Graphs of Three Types of Deserts
La Mesa, CA
Biome review! What are some of the traits that are similar between biomes of the same type? What is an ecotone? Which type of grassland is found in Africa? Which type of desert is found in Mongolia? Why is Antarctica not considered a part of a biome? Which biome do we live in? What is stratification? Where do we see it? If I hiked up a mountain, tell me what changes in vegetation I would experience. Why do pine trees have needle shaped leaves? Why do rainforest trees have broad-leaves? Why do deciduous trees lose their leaves? Explain how grasses are adapted to their environment.