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7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes?  Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation.

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Presentation on theme: "7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes?  Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation."— Presentation transcript:

1 7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes?  Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation of tropical, temperate, and cold deserts, grasslands, and forests, and largely determine their locations.

2 Climate Affects Where Organisms Can Live  Biomes characterized by having similar: Climate Precipitation Temperature Soil Plants Animal  Latitude and elevation  Biomes are mosaics of patches  Do not have distinct boundaries (ecotone)

3 The Earth’s Major Biomes

4 Generalized Effects of Elevation and Latitude on Climate and Biomes

5 Natural Capital: Average Precipitation and Average Temperature as Limiting Factors

6 Biome: Deciduous Forest  Climate Temperature: Temperate & Tropical Precipitation: 75 – 250 cm per year  Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Hardwood (Deciduous) Trees Loose leaves in winter to conserve energy

7 Biome: Deciduous Forest  Major Locations North America, Europe, Australia, and Eastern Asia  Characteristic Fauna Black bear, white-tail deer, squirrels, raccoons, opossums

8 Biome: Deciduous Forest  Soil Characteristics Very rich soil with high organic content  Other Important Facts Slow decomposition rates in the forest lead to high soil quality

9 Temperate Rain Forest in Washington State, U.S.

10 Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Forests

11 Biome: Tropical Rainforest  Climate Temperature: Tropical Precipitation: 200 – 400 cm per year  Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Broadleaf Evergreen trees Large leaves to catch rare sunlight Vines, epiphytes Get moisture from the air, roots not in ground All plants adapted to LOW light

12 Biome: Tropical Rainforest  Major Locations South America, West Africa, Southeast Asia  Characteristic Fauna Monkeys, insects, amphibians, tropical birds

13 Biome: Tropical Rainforest  Soil Characteristics POOR soil due to rapid rate of decomposition  Other Important Facts Stratification provides niches for specialized species – leads to high biodiversity

14 Stratification of Specialized Plant and Animal Niches in a Tropical Rain Forest

15 Biome: Grasslands  Climate Temperature: Tropical & Temperate Precipitation: 10 – 60 cm per year  Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Sod-forming grasses which are adapted to fire Grasses store most of their biomass in the roots, this ensures their recovery after a fire, and after grazers have eaten their tops

16 Biome: Grasslands  Major Locations North American plains (prairies), Russia (steppes), South Africa (velds), Argentina (pampas), Africa (savanna)  Characteristic Fauna Grazers & Browsers

17 Biome: Grasslands  Soil Characteristics Rich Soil Has made the grasslands prime for human interference by agriculture  Other Important Facts Fire adapted Large animals

18 Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Grasslands

19 Monoculture Crop Replacing Biologically Diverse Temperate Grassland

20 Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest)  Climate Temperature: Cold Precipitation: 20- 60 cm (mostly in summer)  Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Coniferous evergreens Small needle-shaped leaves with waxy coating to help conserve energy loss. Stay green all year because of relatively low solar intensity year-round

21 Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest)  Major Locations Northern North America (Canada), Northern Eurasia  Characteristic Fauna Bears, wolves, moose, lynx, and burrowing rodents

22 Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest)  Soil Characteristics Soil is thin and nutrient poor because of the acidic tannins in pine needles  Other Important Facts California’s Giant Redwoods (Sequoias)

23 Biome: Tundra  Climate Temperature: Cold (grassland) Precipitation: Less than 25 cm  Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Herbaceous plants Low-growing plants, dwarf shrubs, lichens

24 Biome: Tundra  Major Locations Northern latitudes of North America, Europe and northern Eurasia  Characteristic Fauna Caribou (reindeer), migratory waterfowl, arctic wolf, arctic fox, musk oxen, snowy owl

25 Biome: Tundra  Soil Characteristics Permafrost!! Very thin, fragile soil  Other Important Facts Most annual growth occurs in the 7-8 week long summer Melting permafrost releases CH 4 and CO 2 : both greenhouse gasses!!

26 Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest)  Climate Temperature: Temperate Precipitation: 50 – 75 cm (mostly in winter)  Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Small trees with large hard leaves, spiny shrubs, adapted to fire Burn easily Seeds germinate when exposed to hot fire

27 Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest)  Major Locations Western North America, the Mediterranean  Characteristic Fauna Mule deer, chipmunks, jackrabbits, lizards, variety of birds

28 Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest)  Soil Characteristics Shallow and infertile soil  Other Important Facts Prone to fire in dry season Desirable climate w/ risks!

29 Chaparral Vegetation in Utah, U.S.

30 Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold)  Climate Temperature: Tropical, Temperate, Cold Precipitation: Less than 25 cm  Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Cactus and other low- water adapted plants (Succulents)

31 Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold)  Major Locations 30  North and South of the Equator  Characteristic Fauna Camels, reptiles, rodents (kangaroo rat – never drinks water)

32 Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold)  Soil Characteristics Coarse texture (sandy) not good at holding moisture or nutrients  Other Important Facts Fragile ecosystem due to Slow plant growth Low species diversity Slow nutrient recycling Lack of water

33 Climate Graphs of Three Types of Deserts

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35 La Mesa, CA

36 Philadelphia

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38 Biome review!  What are some of the traits that are similar between biomes of the same type?  What is an ecotone?  Which type of grassland is found in Africa?  Which type of desert is found in Mongolia?  Why is Antarctica not considered a part of a biome?  Which biome do we live in?  What is stratification? Where do we see it?  If I hiked up a mountain, tell me what changes in vegetation I would experience.  Why do pine trees have needle shaped leaves?  Why do rainforest trees have broad-leaves?  Why do deciduous trees lose their leaves?  Explain how grasses are adapted to their environment.


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