Presentation on theme: "7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes?"— Presentation transcript:
17-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes? Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation of tropical, temperate, and cold deserts, grasslands, and forests, and largely determine their locations.
2Climate Affects Where Organisms Can Live Biomes characterized by having similar:ClimatePrecipitationTemperatureSoilPlantsAnimalLatitude and elevationBiomes are mosaics of patchesDo not have distinct boundaries (ecotone)
4Generalized Effects of Elevation and Latitude on Climate and Biomes
5Natural Capital: Average Precipitation and Average Temperature as Limiting Factors
6Biome: Deciduous Forest ClimateTemperature: Temperate & TropicalPrecipitation: 75 – 250 cm per yearDominant Vegetation & Adaptations:Hardwood (Deciduous) TreesLoose leaves in winter to conserve energy
7Biome: Deciduous Forest Major LocationsNorth America, Europe, Australia, and Eastern AsiaCharacteristic FaunaBlack bear, white-tail deer, squirrels, raccoons, opossums
8Biome: Deciduous Forest Soil CharacteristicsVery rich soil with high organic contentOther Important FactsSlow decomposition rates in the forest lead to high soil quality
9Temperate Rain Forest in Washington State, U.S. 9
10Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Forests 10
11Biome: Tropical Rainforest ClimateTemperature: TropicalPrecipitation: 200 – 400 cm per yearDominant Vegetation & Adaptations:Broadleaf Evergreen treesLarge leaves to catch rare sunlightVines, epiphytesGet moisture from the air, roots not in groundAll plants adapted to LOW light
12Biome: Tropical Rainforest Major LocationsSouth America, West Africa, Southeast AsiaCharacteristic FaunaMonkeys, insects, amphibians, tropical birds
13Biome: Tropical Rainforest Soil CharacteristicsPOOR soil due to rapid rate of decompositionOther Important FactsStratification provides niches for specialized species – leads to high biodiversity
14Stratification of Specialized Plant and Animal Niches in a Tropical Rain Forest 14
15Biome: Grasslands Climate Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations: Temperature: Tropical & TemperatePrecipitation: 10 – 60 cm per yearDominant Vegetation & Adaptations:Sod-forming grasses which are adapted to fireGrasses store most of their biomass in the roots, this ensures their recovery after a fire, and after grazers have eaten their tops
16Biome: Grasslands Major Locations Characteristic Fauna North American plains (prairies), Russia (steppes), South Africa (velds), Argentina (pampas), Africa (savanna)Characteristic FaunaGrazers & Browsers
17Biome: Grasslands Soil Characteristics Other Important Facts Rich Soil Has made the grasslands prime for human interference by agricultureOther Important FactsFire adaptedLarge animals
18Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Grasslands 18
19Monoculture Crop Replacing Biologically Diverse Temperate Grassland 19
20Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest) ClimateTemperature: ColdPrecipitation: cm (mostly in summer)Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations:Coniferous evergreensSmall needle-shaped leaves with waxy coating to help conserve energy loss. Stay green all year because of relatively low solar intensity year-round
21Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest) Major LocationsNorthern North America (Canada), Northern EurasiaCharacteristic FaunaBears, wolves, moose, lynx, and burrowing rodents
22Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest) Soil CharacteristicsSoil is thin and nutrient poor because of the acidic tannins in pine needlesOther Important FactsCalifornia’s Giant Redwoods (Sequoias)
24Biome: Tundra Major Locations Characteristic Fauna Northern latitudes of North America, Europe and northern EurasiaCharacteristic FaunaCaribou (reindeer), migratory waterfowl, arctic wolf, arctic fox, musk oxen, snowy owl
25Biome: Tundra Soil Characteristics Other Important Facts Permafrost!! Very thin, fragile soilOther Important FactsMost annual growth occurs in the 7-8 week long summerMelting permafrost releases CH4 and CO2: both greenhouse gasses!!
26Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest) ClimateTemperature: TemperatePrecipitation: 50 – 75 cm (mostly in winter)Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations:Small trees with large hard leaves, spiny shrubs, adapted to fireBurn easilySeeds germinate when exposed to hot fire
27Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest) Major LocationsWestern North America, the MediterraneanCharacteristic FaunaMule deer, chipmunks, jackrabbits, lizards, variety of birds
28Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest) Soil CharacteristicsShallow and infertile soilOther Important FactsProne to fire in dry seasonDesirable climate w/ risks!
30Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold) ClimateTemperature: Tropical, Temperate, ColdPrecipitation: Less than 25 cmDominant Vegetation & Adaptations:Cactus and other low-water adapted plants (Succulents)
31Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold) Major Locations30 North and South of the EquatorCharacteristic FaunaCamels, reptiles, rodents (kangaroo rat – never drinks water)
32Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold) Soil CharacteristicsCoarse texture (sandy)not good at holding moisture or nutrientsOther Important FactsFragile ecosystem due toSlow plant growthLow species diversitySlow nutrient recyclingLack of water
38Biome review!What are some of the traits that are similar between biomes of the same type?What is an ecotone?Which type of grassland is found in Africa?Which type of desert is found in Mongolia?Why is Antarctica not considered a part of a biome?Which biome do we live in?What is stratification? Where do we see it?If I hiked up a mountain, tell me what changes in vegetation I would experience.Why do pine trees have needle shaped leaves?Why do rainforest trees have broad-leaves?Why do deciduous trees lose their leaves?Explain how grasses are adapted to their environment.